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Department
Geography
Course
GGR111H5
Professor
laydon
Semester
Fall

Description
Human Geography- GRR111 Lecture 01 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Human Geography- First Lecture ( September-10-2012) GGR111H: Human Geography September 2012 Professor Leydon Course Focus: -Introduction to Core Elements of Human Geography -History and Development -Population Issues 
 -Economic Activity
 -The Urban Landscape -Geographic Literacy -cartoon pointing out: we as a population have become completely unaware of whats going on - Geolitercy Levels- Selected Countries (graph) *85% of young Americans could not find Afghanistan, Iraq, or Israel on a world map Course Ideal& Goal - Emphasis on Active Learning  -Participation,concentration,effort  -Holistic – lectures, readings, practical sessions, field 
 work 
 Skill Development
  - Communication – reading, writing, oral  -Practical skills – field work
  -Organizational skills 
 - Gatewaycourse  Preparation to pursue a Geography program Course Website [email protected]
 - Checkatleast3timesperweek/Checkyouremaildaily - All relevant course material communicated through portal/email
 - You require your UTORID and password to enter the portal
 - Always use your UofT email for course communication Course Syllabus
 -All course policies
 - Learning goals
 -Submission dates ,evaluation Course Component‟s Lectures  Attendancerequired,carefulnotetaking,slideson portal Textbook  E-text, supplement lectures Practical Sessions  Attendance required  Field skills and lab reports, schedule on portal Field Trip/Fiel Report  Application offield skills, written reports  Sign-up on portal–see announcement on the course 
 page Course Components Two in class tests  
 Multiple choice,„bell ringer‟
  Focus on specific material
  Dates October 10th. & November 7th.  Further details in class and on portal Final Examination
  Written answers (short essay format)  Geoliteracy
 Final Examination is cumulative  On line map quizzes to improve geographic literacy these do not count toward your final grade Reading notes from lecture 1 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Physical geography is concerned with the physical world, for example, climates and landforms human geography is concerned with the human world, for example, agricultural activities and settlement patterns. Three Recurring Themes: Human and Land - is not preordained (domed) -not the result of any single cause ex. climate, physiography, religion-culture -Rather, it is the ever- changing product of the activities of humans -human geographers often focus on the evolution of the human world with reference to people, their cultures, and physical environments. Landscape: A major concern of geographic study; the characteristics of a particular area especially as created through human activity.  two closely related aspects to „ land-scape‟ in this sense: 1. First, landscape is what is there as a result of human modifications of physical geography. ex, buildings, lines of communication, and other visible, material features 2. Second, landscape has significant symbolic content, ex, church, statue, tall office = meaning. material human addition to the physical geography of a place: such features are expressions in landscape of the cultures that produced them. * One common thread among them, however, is the fact that the human world is always changing. Ex-9/11 - The central subject matter of human geog-raphy is human behaviour as it affects the earth‟s surface The Discipline of Geography Lecture 02 2/3/2013 5:48:00 AM Early Beginnings - Description & Mapping -Greek, Roman, Chinese, Islamic Empires -European colonization/Imperialism
 -Expanding the „known world‟
 -Relevance? - Description & Mapping -Roman and Greek Worlds: shows the empire -Islamic World: showing the Islamic empire Mercator projection: shows the whole map of the world Early map of North America: map shows colonies, there is a greater emphasis on certain parts of the world ex. Newfoundland -Early map of Canada: .. -early map of Barbados: very detailed *the critics say these maps are that they are very descriptive and not so analytical Geography-Academic Discipline -Define and Distinguishes: Geographic Traditions ** Environmental Determinism
 :In the relationship the environment is the active part and the humans are passive, best societies emerged in better environment, and superior societies emerged in better climates. The environment -do you think science will save us? Science has its limit and this is where geo present ** Possibilism
 - Regional Studies/Regional Geography -Spatial Analysis
 - Human and Physical Geography
 - Applied Geography Social sciences Human Geo Theoretical Influences - Empiricism
  Knowledge results from experience – factual observation - Positivism  Objective -Personal beliefs do not influence research -Scientific facts-theory-hypothesis-law
 * Quantify – Quantitative Revolution: really important in geo, follows through with a positive approach, really important in urban economic geography Theoretical Influences Humanism  Subjective  Pragmatism, phenomenology, existentialism, idealism (not important) Marxism
  Humans constrained by economic processes  Social institutions created by human
  Revolutionary – understand and change  It argues that humans are constrained by argumental process -You need to understand the capitalism to under stand society -Why do you need education: to continue capitalism Key focus: objective and subjective Understand it Review Early Development of Geography
  Why the focus on mapping & description What are the traditions in geography
  Understand the differences ( differeances of evi determinism and possim)  
 Understand the relevance of the differences Relevance of philosophical influences  Objective or subjective, (distinction from objective (more science based) and subjective (human based, ppl operate with in society, they are not machines)  
 Relevance of the distinction remember -Geography is a Spatial Discipline -Geography is multidisciplinary - Core of Geography 
 human/environment relationship Read upto page 57 Population Growth Lecture 03 2/3/2013 5:48:00 AM Population Geography- Focus & Concerns? -The number, composition & distribution of people in relation to variations in conditions across the globe -The unequal distribution of population -Significant variation in population dynamics (e.g. 
 growth) -concerns over disconnections between population & resources :one of the key concerns of the 21th cent, we are experiencing a global pop growth but we have people who are starving and can we sustain resources in the future. -population growth is a recent phenomenon (chart) population increasing by the billions which is alarming, this a huge concern in terms of human environment related -population clock,2012 :by the end of class 10,000 ppl are born , people die Africa and subsara are experiencing growth but however in some areas there is population decrease and no growth is taking place. more devloped world shown limited population growth and less dev. Countries show increase growth Population Dynamics Births -Crude Birth Rate (CBR)  =
 number of live births (LB) in one year divided by the total population (TP) multiplied by 1,000 e.g.: LB = 80,000; TP = 10,000,000 - CBR = 80,000 divided by 10,000,000 multiplied by 1,000 -= 8 per 1,000 *dess dev= increase lower the level of economic dev , higher the birth rate , higher ec = lower birth rate (inverse relationship) Geographical Patterns Birth rates- influences Economic structure: what is going on in the economy of that country, agricultural resources have and an influence on the economy Ex. large family was normal as the family was a labor unit in relation to the economy. Ex.Families are smaller here as children as an economic liability, as we don‟t contribute to the family unit as much as they did in back in the day. Social Structure: health care, pension plans, insurance this allows us to become less depended on our family where as in developing countries the responsibility is on the family as the family is larger and there are people who will be there to look after them. Cost of children: is expensive, as they are financial liability, cost of education, car, phone etc… where as in developing world children start to work and provide for the family so that‟s why is makes more sense to have more children in society. Role of women in society: in present day there are more women in universities compared to the past ages. There are equal opportunity, which allow for later marriage or postponing birth of child. Where as in the developing countries women are not given equal opportunity thus they have to relay on the male of the house for income. Economic asset Economic liability ~$170,000 cost of goods and services one could expect to purchase over 18 years (Vanier Institute, 2004) Family Planning Sub-Saharan Africa -is about family planning and issues of choice -when we look at family planning does it make sense in terms of society and economy 416 708 4536 issey Population Geography Lecture 04 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Review -What is Population Geography 
 -What are the key concerns - Measuring Population change – Birth Rate  Crude Birth Rate  
 Geographic variations  Reasons for variations Family planning: is presented to us as a solution to population problem, but it has to be viewed as rational in regards to the specific population. Age of marriage *determines the age of first child, younger you are the more likely the more children you are likely to have. Average age at first marriage Canada = 28
 Nigeria = 16 Average age at first birth Canada – 30
 Nigeria – 17 the reason why females have more children in developing courtiers is because there are limited to the opportunities they have, but if they had an education they would have more opportunity and thus they would have lesser children. Population Dynamics Deaths * Crude Death Rate (CDR) =
 number of deaths(ND)in one year divided by the total population (TP) multiplied by 1,000 * e.g.: ND = 60,000; TP= 10,000,000
 *CBR = 60,000 divided by 10,000,000 multiplied by 1,000
 = 6 per 1,000 this formula can be used for any country There is a relation ship btw economics and population but however not so much because if you have a young pop. The population of death will be lower where as candanda as major portion of 65 and above = more old people = high death rates *there are high death rates in places where there is economic stability due to old age Geo patterns- death rates Influences -Economic Structure  Influence food supply, water, medical facilities - Social Structure
  Welfare, role of women -Causes of Death
  Geographic variations (a lot of old ppl = death rate^ young ppl birth rate ^) - Structure of Population
  Proportion of Old/Young in population -Health Geography the leading cause of diseases in Canada are cardiovascular diseases, but when we look at this can be seen as a genetic disease passed down through generation. We can make a connection to genetics, also smoking, drinking and high levels of stress. Diseases are more likely to occur because we tend to live longer. *death in dev. Countries is related to food, water etcc. *death in devolved counties is based on social factors and the way we live our lives -developing worlds sub Sahara are more likely to have HIV due to sexual transmitted disease, and death rate is high in those countries *birth mortality rates in different countries Population Growth Rate of Natural Increase ( need to remember this in terms of population control) Rate of „Natural‟ Increase = CBR – CDR  E.g. CBR = 35 per 1000  CDR = 5 per 1000  RNI = 35 – 5 = 30 per 1000  Always expressed as a percentage = 3.0% (divide by 10 to express as a %) RNI(rate of natural increase) CDR( crude death rate) CBR( crude birth rate) Double Time of population - Doubling Times = 70/Natural Increase annual percentage increase –doubling time *population increase has its downs as population increase use of resources increases and land degradation, food shortages, diseases and finical struggles will begin to happen potential inflation and a lot more things can happen. WHAT will happen in developing countries if they don‟t have much to start with. In order for population to double the rate needs to be constant over the years. Review - What are the key concerns/issues in Population Geography : core value of ppl and environmental connection, and population growth is happening in parts of the would where it is hard to sustain -How do we measure population change: formula, as these variable give us some information (economic situation and other factors) -What are CBR, CDR, RNI, Doubling time : impacts on society and economy and population -What factors influence Birth and Deaths * bring field note book and print out notes for Friday v Population Geography Lecture 05 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Problems with CBR& CDR - Crude measurements
 Do not consider population structure, based upon total population ex. A lot of old ppl= death rate high, young ppl= birth rate high - How to over come these problems Use additional indices Total Fertility rate (TFR) TFR is the number of children that would be born to each woman if during her child bearing years she bore children at the current years rate for women of that age‟ -if we want to consider fertility we want to consider who is producing children in society, narrowing into female in the reproductive age Total Fertility Rate Considers the structure of population Considers the attitude toward fertility Provides information on replacement * society thinks that all couples should have children when married. (profs example irland) Changes In TFR since the 1960‟s In order to replace a population you need a TFR of 2.1 to 2.5 per women is considered the replacement level. *exam question analyzing the chart (achieving replacement) what does it mean? What is the relevance of this data . In many respect is better to have pop. Growth than pop. Decline as pop growth provides more opportunity Total Fertility Rate (MAPS) Why is total fertility rate related to birthrate? Exam question Factors influencing Total Fertility Rate Age profile of the population- old population less birth rate Culture of the population-is everyone having 6 children ex. Porfs family attitude toward birth- birth is important is society and there is a lot of emphasis on birth role of females – education and later marriage age of marriage – marry later due to opportunity contraception etc.- needs to be used properly Economic structure need/cost of children
 How is TFR different from CBR? Infant Mortality Rate -Infant Mortal Rate is
 Deaths under 1year of age per 1,000 live births -What influences infant mortality? Food and water
 - if you have poor quality of water infants will die, and if mother dose not have proper food supply prior and post birth the infant will die Medical facilities-allows those to live who would have originally died ex. Premi baby might die but based on facility changes everything 
 Age of mother- young mother tends to have more problems while giving birth compared to if she was older. But if she is old it can also cause problems Levels of poverty- if there are problems in food supplies and water then poverty is present - How is IMR more informative than CDR? –its getting into to detail, IMR tell us a lot of inside detail? ( test question) - Provides better insights into economic condition *in Canada the highest infant mortality rates are present in the native and aboriginal families and ect. Due to there low economic levels Population Structure Dependent populations ( because they require someone for support) %<15 years of age (young) %>65 years of age( old) Independent populations % population aged 15 to 65 (this typically the labor force, and this population is crucial for the upper population as from there taxes and ect do this population service , thus more numbers in this pop. The better) Dependency ratio Independent population divided by dependent population Types of Dependency Youth dependency Elderly dependency Dependant/ Independent Populations World Region, 2012 (chart) -old ppl are no use to society as they don‟t contribute to society and they just become a liability -Dependency ratio - e.g. In Europe there are 2.1 independent persons for each dependent person in Africa is only 1 Population Pyramids -Population arranged by gender & age
 Age cohorts (<5, 5-9, 10-14 etc.)
 Each age cohort expressed as a % of the totaled gendered population e.g. Males <5 years of age/total male population* 100 e.g. Males <5 = 100 Total male population = 1000 = 100/1000*100 = 10% -Construct a pyramid (graph) including all age cohorts Population Pyramid- Germany 2000 What do population pyramids reveal? -Age structure of a population dependency -Past and present fertility
 - Life expectancy
 - Future of a population - Indicate levels of development Examining Population Pyramids Population Pyramids USA 1960- 2040 (projected) Review Recognise the limitation of indicators and how to compensate What is TFR? Why is it better than CBR? What is IMR? What does it tell us about a population? What are dependent/independent population ? Why is 
 this relevant? How to construct a population pyramid What do population pyramids reveal about a 
 population? Lecture 06 Population Geography 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Review  Recognise the limitation of indicators and how to compensate  What is TFR? Why is it better than CBR?  What is IMR? What does it tell us about a population?  What are dependent /independent population? Why is 
 this relevant? Population Pyramids  Population arranged by gender & age
 Age cohorts (<5, 5-9, 10-14 etc.)
 Each age cohort expressed as a % of the totaled gendered population e.g. Males <5 years of age/total male population* 100  e.g. Males <5 = 100 Total male population = 1000 = 100/1000*100 = 10% Construct a pyramid (graph) including all age cohorts Population Pyramid-Germany 2000 We can look at the population growth and decline and we can predict the future What do population pyramids reveal? - Age structure of a population  dependency -Past and present fertility
 - Life expectancy
 -Future of a population - Indicate levels of development Examining Population Pyramids -theses show the growth of three different countries -USA shows economic development as population growth and decline is so drastic -democratic rep. Congo shows extreme population decline in old people - In Germany the population growth is showing increase in old age meaning labor force will shrink as the youth gets older and no rapid new growth is created. *in test he might ask us to explain the graphs Population Pyramids USA 1960-2040 (projected) Measuring Population Density - Population density = relationship between population and the area of land they occupy -it gives a certain degree of pressure that is on the land  Crude Density
 o Total population divided by total land area o -cannot be applied to Canada as we have so much unsuable land  Physiographic Density
 o Total population divided by the total arable land (which can support people through the production of food) *(arable land= is hard to define to different provinces cannot be compared and spate measurements are needed)  Agricultural Density
 o Total agricultural population divided by total 
 arable land  -It gives far more accurate pressure on the land Comparative Densities for Selected Countries Crude Physiologi Agricultura cal Country Density l Density (sq. km.) Density (sq. km.) (sq. km.) Argentina 12 92 15 Australia 2 37 5 Bangladesh 774 1216 1204 Canada 3 60 15 China 122 1192 689 Egypt 56 2203 1197 India 268 523 438 Iran 36 403 145 Japan 334 2629 599 Nigeria 98 288 248 Britain 236 823 100 U.S. 27 135 36 Population With Density Measurements - Is the calculation based on productive land?  The quality of land varies from location - How do you define „arable‟ land? -Why isolate „agricultural‟ population?  This doesn‟t illustrate pressure put on that ex. Canada : no one produces food, but we consume- we put pressure on land. A problem we get our food here, so therefore; we put more pressure on other countries; and this puts false pressure (underestimation) on our own city. -Is agricultural land the only resource? - Does the measurement reflect pressure on land?  These density measurements aren‟t useful to us in the modern world - Does the measurement reflect real population 
 distribution? Spatial Distribution Population Density/overcrowding -Are these related? -How to define overcrowding – some ppl who might visit the GTA might feel as if it is over crowded but ppl who have been living there for years might not think that - Is overcrowding related to space or resources? Population & Carrying Capacity - Defining carrying capacity  Basic meaning – ability of an area of land to support a population
  BUT – carrying capacity changes through the use of technology ex. Fertilizer= more food= more people Important Questions  Is there a relationship between carrying capacity and population density? -  Is there a relationship between carrying capacity and overcrowding?  Is there a relationship between carrying capacity and geography?  Is there a global carrying capacity? Discussion On Population - Malthus & Population
  Population grows at a geometric rate
 Food supply grows at a arithmetic rate 
 o Population limited by food supply 
 o Population increase unless prevented by checks  What are checks? 
 o Private – moral constraints, celibacy o Destructive – war, famine, disease Discussion On Population - Marx and Population
  Not too many people BUT too many poor people  Why -Unequal distribution of wealth  Solution -Redistribute wealth
  How to achieve this solution? -Change the economic system Neo-Malthusian & Population - Neo-Malthusian & Population
  Population Growth & Resource Supply  Growth – hunger, poverty environmental problems - Solution  Control population growth -How  impose family planning CARIO PLAN -Neo-Malthusian influence  Importance of family planning Additional Emphasis  Empowerment of women will lead to effective 
 family planning  Education Discussion Population  What opinions are offered?  Are there problems with these opinions?  What do they emphasize?  What do they ignore? Review  Different ways of measuring population density  Problems with these measurements  What is overcrowding, carrying capacity?  Are density, overcrowding and carrying capacity 
 related?  Critical understanding of the different opinions on population Missed lecture 07 get notes 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM 30/09/2012 GGR111: Human Geography October 2012 Discussions on Population Whatopinionsareoffered?
 Whatdotheyemphasize?
 Whatdotheyignore? Malthus & Population
 Populationgrowsatageometricrate
 Foodsupplygrowsatanarithmeticrate Population limited by food supply Whatarechecks? Private – Destructive – war, famine, disease 1 30/09/2012 Discussions on Population Marx and Population
 Why Solution Redistribute wealth
 Howtoachievethissolution? Change the economic system Neo-Malthusian & Population Neo-Malthusian & Population
 PopulationGrowth&ResourceSupply Growth – Solution How Impose family planning 2 30/09/2012 Cairo Plan Neo-Malthusian influence Importance of family planning Additional Emphasis Empowerment of women will lead to effective 
 family planning Education Discussions on Population Whatopinionsareoffered? Arethereproblemswiththeseopinions? Whatdotheyemphasize? Whatdotheyignore? 3 Lecture 8 Population Geography 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM TA: office hours 11:30 to 12:30 *ASK ABOUT THE ROUTES AND THE MAP LOCATION Population Mobility Understanding the terminology
  Migration–general term
  Immigration–coming to a country  Emigration–leaving a country Geography of movement  Intercontinental & Intra continental  Relocation with in a country–rural to urban ,within 
 urban area Types of movement  Voluntary- Personal choice 
  Reluctant/Forced- refugee based / decision that is forced Motivations/Incentives
 Vary with type of movement and time  Push/Pull factors (things that pushing or pulling people to leave and come) - factors that are pushing people out , are pulling people towards there new destination  Economic opportunity- good jobs, money 
  Political/Cultural freedom
 - Canada has freedom due to democracy as we are protected by charter of rights and freedom  Social Organisation/Programs- strong education, health and social program along with good pension program  Residential choices & lifestyle- cycle of living in city to moving to sububs and then moving back to city do to old age Impact Of Population Mobility - Population redistribution - Population growth/decline  Births – Death = Natural Increase/Decrease
 *natural increase is diff. btw death rates and birth rates  Natural Increase + Immigration – Emigration  E.G. United States o Births - Deaths = 6 per 1,000
 o Births – Deaths + Immigration - Emigration= 12 per 1,000 *The eco effect -when birth rate starts to decline and death rates start to increase immigration starts to increase but emigration dose happen but its not as drastic in Canada. -push and pull factors influence immigration and emigration Impact On Migration - General characteristics of migrants  Young, educated, motivated - Impact on destination
  Increase infertility, increase development potential, limited costs, population increase - Impact on origin  Reduction in young population ,loss of investment, loss of development potential, potential population decline * sometimes when a country invests in you, you might leave and the country gets nothing (profs example) *you have to adapt to life style and you have buy a lot of things in order to make the change which drives our economy Voluntary Movement Immigration to Canada Chart *25%family class *55% fall under economic immigrants –majority *13% refugees *4% of other Economic Immigrant Category *77% skilled workers *9 %Business Immigrants *10% Provincial/ Territorial nominees *5% Live- in- Caregivers *we bring people in because we need them not because were nice! Barrier to Migration  Physical - distance (further you have to travel more time and money)  Economic-cost (selective processes some people may not want to come b/c they don‟t have money to travel)  Cultural –fear of change (not being accepted discrimination ex. Western Eroupe)  Political - restriction Consequences Of Barriers - Illegal immigration/People Trafficking
  Highly organized
  Very lucrative–country of origin& destination  Opposition yet acceptance
  Vulnerable population ,exploitation Reluctant Mobility - Intracontinental /interregional Refugee movements 
  Fear of persecution – war, religion, ethnicity 
  Major environmental problems - International convention on refugees 
 Refugee camps, repatriation, resettlement Migration within a country eg. Canada  Rural to urban migration  From less developed to more developed regions  Motivation – economic  Characteristics – young, educated  Consequences – for receiving areas/areas losing population Inter- urban Mobility  Lifestyle  Family structure  Age o Consequences
 o Suburbanization
 o Urban Renewal
 o Lifestyle communities – e.g. retirement Key Issues For Review  Understanding the terminology
  Understanding the geography of movement  Types of movement
  Impact on receiving areas/losing areas
 Immigrant selection Population Geo lecture 9 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Population Geography Discussions on Population  What opinions are offered?  Are there problems with these opinions?  What do they emphasize?  What do they ignore? Population geo  Ideas and theories about population, and how ppl argue the relationship between environment & population  Malthus was an economist, clergy man, and English.  These 3 components influenced his point of view  He believed population grew in a geometric rate, while food supply grew at rhythmetic rate.  Population is growing faster than the food supply  Food supply acts as a limitation on population growth  Two types of checks : destructive -> war, famine, disease. Private  moral constraints, and celibacy. Graph # 1  Once the population starts to be greater than the food supply, you need a “check” Discussions on Population  Marx talks about population like, “we have too many poor people.”  DUE TOO* unequal distribution of wealth  For example Sub-Suharan Africa  theres not a lot of people who live there, and distribution of wealth.  Capitalism is the source of this unequal wealth distribution Neo-Malthusian & Population  Post 1960s period [very important]  1960s was crucial because this was the moment of massive population growth.  See growth of population: as more hunger, environmental problems  solution: control population growth [family planning]  Family planning: you‟re not planning to have a family, you‟re planning to NOT have a family. Cairo Plan – hugely influential  Family planning is essential, but you have to do it with women  We have to change the dynamic of society: if we want to employ family planning through women, we gotta empower women – how?  education. *fundamental problems with all of these: they all focus on one side of the population : WHICH IS NUMBERS. ** like too many people.  But reality, its not about too many people, it‟s really about too much consumption. When we focus on consumption, we become the problem. Read: Pp.1-12 pp.17-40; 47-57 pp.128-149; 152-154; 164-169;173-182 Lec 10 Economic Geo 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM what is economic Geo? How this varies spatially How economic actives are spatially? -economic sectors -4 sections - we argue that primary actives should always be moving up wards -higher level are advance and more educated ex. us uni students will be moving up the economy not going back to the primary activates -tertiary section has the most common rate for employment in Canada -In Africa there is primary economy -in India secondary economy -richest province in Canada is Alberta because there is no taxation and enery supplier Primary Beginning of Production cycle Extraction Material -fishing -mining -Forestry -agriculture (focus on this topic) Focus on Agriculture  First Agricultural Revolution
 (most imp. Event in human history) - you start you gain control over food supply o Domestication of plants & animals o Relevance  Food supply
  Population
 - -population growth drives agr. - If you have more people you have more labor =more food  Social organization -emergence of social political system o Producers/non-producers -this group becomes reliant on the -these people were catholic priest, they had the ability to predict the weather pattern and that‟s why they were so important because the controlled the food system  Cultural development o Religion, laws, writing etc. due to agriculture Origins of Agriculture *all different parts of the world are known for producing different types of products Geographic Influences on Agriculture -as you move away from the equator -this shows us the rel/sp btw temp. and food growth - Decreasing precipitation - we need temp and rain fall for food growth and if we don‟t have this then it will impact our food growth patters -deserts exists not because of heat but because of lack of rain Agriculture Origins  Similarities/differences between core areas
 o Geography – climate, local vegetation, animals o Domestication based on natural occurrence/familiarity
  Independent development/not diffusion  Subsequent diffusion from cores o Limited by physical landscape, distance, technology *we need to think about the limitations of the environment Cultural Hearths Agricultural systems Subsistence –people are producing food for self Commercial- consumsion takes place outside of the food is produced  Differences o 
 Focus on production – personal or market Use of land – extensive or intensive Labour – human/animal, mechanized Social Organization *difference is they are not producing surplus of food and no trade is taking place but commercial is about selling.  relationship between production& consumption Lecture 11 Economic Geography 9/30/2012 7:57:00 AM Population/food supply Dilemma 20 th/21 stcentury * on the final exam there will be geo lit exam so practice the quizzes that he has showed us.  How to increase food supply?  Increase land area o Limited possibilities o Land area declining  Increase intensity
 o Through scientific management
 Produce more food on existing/declining land area - by 2050 there will be and increase in the world population and their might be a shortage of food -we don‟t have new areas of exploring land for crop production and existing land area is declining due to over working the land and causing erosion and thus land becomes un usable and this causes expansion of dessert areas. -the expansion of city areas cusing land to dessiapaer -ex southern Ontario exapneded on good land -we need to produce more food on limited land by using sicinetidi knowlde Application of scientific Agriculture Cereal production Increase intensity - plant manipulation  Select for desirable traits – esp. yield  Reduce growing time –dev. Crops that have shorter grow time (potential to get more crops from the same piece of land) -ex in gyana it happens naturally  Specialization, Monoculture- one crop being produced on a farm this causes lack of variety but it allows you to be more efficient, consequences of specialization is monoculture: dominating parts of the landscape Other Requirements
  Application fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides  Irrigation- taking water from ground water sources (causing drying out of land)  
 Machinery- applying use of machinery to produce crops (reduce times) this changes formation of the land as you have to take out trees and other things that interfere with the land formation . thus when you remove this you reduce ecological diversity and alow wind to erode land faster. -this increases food supply and allowing for land deplete faster  
 Capital Problems
  Environmental Pressures The Green Rev Transfer of agric tec/practices from developed to developing countries Why practice  High input/ high output agriculture Seeds fertilizer, pests, herbicides, irrigation Why: population growth, innuffsicent food supply Primary focus Wheat, rice & Maze Why these crops? Results of the green revolution  Increase in food output  Significant Regional variations
 Success in Asian, little impact in Africa – Why? Green Rev- yield changes *what is the rel/ of where your producing food and the GEO? *root crops are dominant in Africa Results of the green Rev Increase in output but balanced diets?  Food security? o Cash crop focus o Narrow genetic range -increses crop dep. Because pest weeding one type of crop deducing crop production *we can measure ppls food intake by calorie intake and then we can determine how nourished they are *but inorder to be fully nourished you need to have a full rage of food types in your diet *ex- if you eat a lot of rice you are getting full and meeting calorie count but your diet lacks balance in diet Food dependency *linked to interoperation and chart for final exam *we have to think about why this area is not procuring anough food wehave to look at the land and ask why the area is not producing the food -we have to look at free trade Dependency On Primary Exports *force countires to speucailze and dominate econmy and your going to be subtitle to price swings The green Rev- Impacts Displacement of farmers
 Capital requirements Migration onto marginal lands Marginalisation
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