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Lecture 14

Lecture 14.docx

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR111H5
Professor
laydon
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 14 4/11/2013 7:03:00 AM Missed class last week prof did continuation and start of new slides sustainable agriculture What is sustainable agriculture? Changing input/maintaining output Mechanisms Crop rotations Fertility, pest/weed control, economic diversity Green manures/crop residue/’ugly farming Soil Maintenance – reduce erosion Natural buffers – limit wind erosion Integrated pest control Polyculture, natural predators Mixed Farming systems Integrate animal and crop production Orgainic Agric. Agricultural based on ‘natural inputs’ Crop & animal systems Principles of sustainable agriculture Heirloom varieties – plants & animals ( purple and yellow potato) Limited genetic engineering (depends on how you are creating organic) Barriers to Sustainable Agric Economies of scale focus (ex. Large levels of management is required) Farmer debt ( farmers reluctant to change) Specialization focus ( success comes through specialization) Corporate control 
 inputs/outputs, research agenda ( push for large scale farming) Cheap food focus ( means we have more money for other things) ex. Washing machine energy efficient or non energy efficient Cost of food Why is organic food so expensive? – is this the correct question? Rephrase the question - Why is non-organic food so cheap? What is not considered in food prices? Costs to the environment ( true cost pricing) Energy costs/subsidies
 Exploitation of labor
 ( no regulation of wedges ex California there will be a lot of illegal labor) Subsidies to industry Tax breaks, research grants, technology Subsidies to agriculture Disproportionately to large farms Costs to health care If food was priced c
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