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Department
Geography
Course
GGR202H5
Professor
Pierre Desrochers
Semester
Fall

Description
GGR202 Lecture #2 Jan. 3/11 Canada: A country of Regions Key themes: Main theme #1: Resource extraction Staples thesis: the idea that the history of Canada, especially its regional, economic, and institutional development, was linked to the discovery, utilization, and export of key resources from Canada’s vast frontier. Harold Innis devised this thesis in the early 1930s and his ideas continue to influence Canadian scholars Heartland: a geographic area in which a nation’s industry, population, and political power are concentrated; also known as a core Hinterland: a geographic area based on resource development that supplies the heartland with many of its primary products; also known as the periphery Main theme #2: “Fault lines” 4 fault lines: -centralist and decentralist -English and French -aboriginal and non-aboriginal -old and new Canadians Lecture #2 Jan. 10/12 Assignment # 1 Expectations: 1) A description of the general topic of the article, motivation for the writing and the stated thesis/theses 2) Evidence or main points discussed which support the author’s arguments 3) Main primary or secondary sources (provide examples) 4) Methods used by the author to research/write the article 5) Your own critical evaluation What is the relationship between physical geography, human settlement and culture? -physiographic regions affect settlement patterns -human activity has a tremendous affect on the environment -Core periphery model – those regions that provide good favourable climate have a more people in the area, thus that area become the core of settlement -access to American and World market from southern Ontario thus allows more people to live in GTA as it has access to everything with favourable climate Physiography: -the study of the physical world -Physiographic region – is a large area of the earth’s crust that has three characteristics:
 • It extends over a large, contiguous area with similar relief features
 • Its landform has been shaped by a common set of geomorphic processes
 • It possesses a common geological structure and history Processes of Topographic Formation: -erosion and deposition -tectonic activity  continental drift/ faulting and folding -glaciations: *glacial striations: scratches or grooves in the bedrock caused by rocks embedded in the Bottom of a moving ice sheet or glacier *isostatic rebound: the uplifting process of the earth’s crust following the removal of an ice sheet that because of its weight, depressed the earth’s crust The Canadian Shield -the largest Canadian terrain -rugged terrain -rocks formed more than 3 million years ago -covers more than half of Canada The Cordillera -covers most of BC -Rocky Mountains -very young – formed 40-80 mil years ago -glacial movement sharpened the mountain peaks and widened them -these mountains have played a very important role in the history, they were a huge barrier between BC and the states of the north pacific coast of the States -CPR was the solution which allowed overcoming the barrier The interior Plains -covers about 20% of Canada’s land -very flat area -Lake Agassiz used to be in Manitoba and Ontario area, which is now the centre for farm activity with the rich soil due to the rich fertile soils at the bottom of the lake that used to be there Hudson Bay Lowland -mostly Ontario -located North of Canadian Shield -in Hundson’s and James’ Bay -Muskeg: a wet, marshy area found in areas of poor drainage, such as the Hudson Bay Lowland. Contains peat deposits. The arctic -mountain ranges formed by volcanic activity -Permanently frozen except at the surface – permafrost Appalachian Uplands -small region -2% of Canada’s land mass -very old mountain range -Valleys with flat table-like plateaus, as a result of eroded mountain ranges Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands -smallest physiographic region in Canada -flat sedimentary rocks are found just below the surface -southerly location -Combination of a mild climate and fertile soils encourage many people to live here -the region of Canada’s industrial Heartland Climate
Factors
 1. Variations in the amount of solar energy
 2. Global circulation of air masses
 3. Continental effect = the affect of distance from oceans Global Circulation System: -the movement of ocean currents and wind systems that redistribute energy around the world -the amount of energy received around the world varies by latitude -this system redistributes the heat through winds from low latitudes to high latitudes Atmospheric Circulation: Air masses: large bodies of air with similar temperature and humidity characteristics that form over large areas with uniform surface features and relative consistent temperatures Marine air masses: large homogeneous bodies of air with moisture and temperature characteristics similar to the ocean where they originate. Marine air masses are normally moist and mild in both winter and summer Continental air masses: homogeneous bodies of air masses that have taken on moisture and temperature characteristics of the land mass of their origin. Continental air masses are normally dry and cold in the winter and dry and hot in the summer. Climate, soils, and natural vegetation: -climate affects the development of soils and the growth of natural vegetation -this influences and use by determining the types of crops that can be grown, whether forest are viable, or if land is suitable for grazing
 -Thus, together with topography, climate determines the lands suitability for human settlement
 The nature of things – David Suzuki -GTA suffers some of the worst air quality in Canada -global warming could put Toronto on ‘life support’ -air pollution puts way more people in the hospital every year as well as deaths -global warming has affected Halifax more than any other city in Canada Lecture #3 Jan. 17/11 Historical Geography: -concerned with geographies of the past and how geographies of the past shape geographies of the present and future -how a place changes over time Questions: 1. How did Canada come to exist as a nation? -the creation of the provinces is really linked to the ability of Canada to make treaties with the Aboriginal people. 2. What role do the aboriginal people have, and ongoing relationship between aboriginal and non- aboriginal peoples played in the development of Canada’s geopolitical landscape? - Two founding nations: -Canadian history is often told as a story of 2 founding nations – the British and the French -this narrative often emphasized the actions taken by French and British officers and politicians -this narrative obscures the role played by and experiences of Aboriginal peoples, women ethnic minorities, lower classes Four stages of relations – RCAP 1) Separate worlds: at this time aboriginal and non-aboriginal people lived on separate continents and knew nothing of each other 2) Nation-to-nation relations: following years of first contact, fragile relations of peace, friendship, and rough equality were given the force of law in treaties 3) Displacement and assimilation: power tilted to non-aboriginal people and their governments. Aboriginal people frequently moved from and denied access to much of their land and steps were taken to ‘civilize” them and teach them European ways 4) Renewal and renegotiation: this is a time of recovery for Aboriginal people and cultures, a time for critical review of the Aboriginal/non-Aboriginal relationships, and a time for its regeneration and renewal. Dish with one Spoon: -a wampum belt symbolizing inter-tribal relations -represents the idea that all of the hunting lands of the Haudenosaunee were meant to be shared Covenant Chain: -an ongoing set of treaties between the English colonies in North America and the Iroquois must gather to polish the chain -the three links represent peace, friendship and respect -it was an agreement that was continuously renewed -you need to constantly polish and renew it in order for it to be maintained; thus the people had to meet to renew the chain and to make sure their relationship is maintained and stays good Two-Row wampum: -the belt is the symbol of a 17 century treaty relationship formed between the Six Nations and settlers of eastern NYC -the two rows of coloured beads represent the two different settlers that is symbolic of the distinct European and Aboriginal society and their good relationship Aboriginal Law and Canada: -the early agreements, wampum, and later treaties demonstrate that Aboriginal peoples were willing to share the land and welcome European settlers – under certain conditions -Aboriginal peoples assert their continuing right to self-government -on the other hand, Canada is often treated as *terra nullius* = land belonging to nobody Royal Proclamation 1763: -outlined the territory to be governed -outlined the terms of government -outlined provision for the settlement of territory -made provision for the protection of ‘Indian Land’ Royal proclamation: Purchase Provisions -established Crown monopoly over the acquisition of Indian lands -voluntary succession: Aboriginal people hold rights to their lands until these rights are ceded Colonization through Law: According to the law of the 17 & 18 century, there were 4 main ways that the Crown could obtain title to territory: 1) Conquest: the military subjugation of territory 2) Cession: formal transfer of territory 3) Annexation: unilateral act 4) Settlement: inhabiting uninhabited land Treaties: -treaty: a legal contract between two entities -aboriginal groups agree to share land and resources in exchange for guarantees that their traditional activities would be undistributed -concerns: treaties could be made in bad faith; Territorial Evolution, 1871: -BC joins out of fear of annexation to the US, debt due to population growth, and the promise to build a railway T.E., 1898: -Yukon joins in the midst of the gold rush T.E., 1905: -Saskatchewan and Alberta join -changing economic conditions -they realized they cannot afford the things that people needed such as schooling -it was seen as an opportunity to develop economically, socially and culturally T.E., 1949: -Newfoundland joins confederation following promises of economic development -they no longer wanted to be governed by someone across the ocean, rather be closer to the government and be able to influence the system -also Canada promised to expand its rail and road system T.E., 1999: -1982- The Canadian Constitution is repatriated, and includes a clause which allows land claims -1992- Nunavut Land claims are settled -Nunavut is formed in 1999 with the passing of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act Post-Confederation Treaties, 1871-1930: -the government could not legally grant land to settlers until First nations transferred their land to the Crown through treaties -cash payments were promised -fishing and hunting rights were given Indian Acts: -1850 – Act for the Better Protection of Lands and Property of the Indians of Lower Canada -1858 – Act for the Gradual Enfranchisement and Assimilation of Indian People -1869 – Gradual Civilization Act -1876 – Indian Act -1879 – Department of Indian Affairs is created Modern Land Claims Process: -1973 the Calder case, heard in the Supreme Court of Canada establishes that Native title exists in Canadian Law -the Comprehensive claims process is established -Comprehensive Claim: deal with Aboriginal title (ownership) and rights that have not been addressed in treaties or by other means Tutorial #2 Jan. 19/12 Title: What can we learn about the article from the title? What questions does the article raise? Abstract/introduction: What information can we get from the abstract/intro? What do we already know about the article?? What questions are raised as a result of reading the abstract/intro? What do you find puzzling or confusing? What arguments or key points should we look for when reading the article? Conclusion: What specific information can we get from the conclusion? Which sentences seem important? How is the information contained in the conclusion different from the abstract/intro? What are the two main themes? How does the conclusion help Lecture #4 Jan. 24/12 Key questions: What are the main characteristics of Canada’s population? What factors account for population growth and change in Canada? How do social policies affect population growth? Demography: -it is the science of human populations -concerned with the size, distribution and composition of populations, and how changes in population are connected with mortality, fertility and migration Social geography: -social geography = examines the social contexts, social context, and social process and group relations that shape space, place and landscape -interested in patterns of distribution of social groups -interested in how difference between groups are created and maintained in a society Citizenship: -citizenship=the rights and duties relating to an individual’s membership in a political community -nation=”the naturalized geo-historical foundation for national community” Canada’s Population: -Canada’s population reached 33 million people in 2009 -Most growth takes place in 3 geographic regions – Western Canada, Ontario, and BC -Canada has a relatively low population density of 3.5 persons/sq. kilometre -most of that population is concentrated in the south Population distribution: -population distribution is the dispersal of people within a geographic area -Canada’s population is very unevenly distributed Primary factors accounting for growth: 1. Natural increase 2. Territorial expansion 3. Immigration 4. Social policies Natural increase: Rate of natural increase: -mortality rate = number of deaths in the population -fertility rate= number of births in the population Aging population: -as a result of declining rate of natural increase, Canada’s population is getting older -the median age of Canadians is getting older -this has social and economic implication for Canada Demographic transition theory: -describes population change in industrial societies -assumes that changes in birth rates and death rates occur as societies move from a pre-industrial to an industrial economy -5 phases that coincide with phases in the process of industrialization Phases in the demographic transition theory: 1. Late pre-industrial: high birth rates and death rates; little or no natural increase 2. Early industrial: falling death rates; high rates of natural increase 3. Late industrial: falling birth rates; high but declining rates of natural increase 4. Early post-industrial: low birth and death rates; little or no natural increase 5. Late post-industrial: falling birth rates, declining population Territorial Expansion and Growth: -the addition of new provinces to confederation accounted for some population in Canada’s early history -when Newfoundland joined confederation, there was an addition of 360000 people Immigration and Social Policies: Immigration: -accounts for 70% of population growth in Canada -immigrants are accounting for a larger proportion of Canadian society, increasing Canada’s cultural diversity -this diversity will call into question the idea of Canada having “two founding peoples” -immigrants tend in settle in cities, increasing the difference between urban and rural population Social policies for controlling population and citizenship: -such social policies do not only manage the population, they determine who has access to land and labour Indian Acts: -1850 – Act for the Better Protecti
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