Class Notes (809,444)
Canada (493,713)
Geography (610)
GGR208H5 (39)


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University of Toronto Mississauga
Shyon Baumann

Understanding Mortality Crude Death Rate y Number of deaths in reference to total population y CDR1000 DP o D total number of deaths in given year o P midyear population y Not agesex standardized History of CDR y Nomad life expectancy was 2030 years in the past 50 of deaths before age 5 y Agriculture and domestication of animals resulted in permanent human settlements new diseases o Closer contact with animals makes humans more susceptible to their diseaseso Still exists today but rate ie mad cow disease or swine flu y Trading and bartering between settlements began disease diffusion thy 19 C improvements in housing sanitation and nutrition declines in disease and death y Decline in DR stars the demographic transition o Industrialrevolution first major driver of rapid decline money workers public health o Advances in medicine and health care thy Developed completed Demographic transition early 20o Majority of deaths in elderly only 2 below age 20 thy Developing countries started death rate decline in late 20 C 40 still below age 5 CDR across the globe y Highest CDR in African countries andin Afghanistan y Lowest CDR in united Arab emirates and developed countries US Canada and Australia y Not all countries have resources to report accurate dataWhat contributes to death rates y Ability to deal with infectious diseases o Eradication of disease o Vaccination o Access to health care services y Improvement in sanitation o Safe access to water not spread out evenly even in developed countrieso Widespread waste removal system moving garbage from streets to sewage system where it can be disposed of properlyo Water and animal safety measures y Improved lifestyle choices o Nutrition exercise reduction in smoking excessive drinking drug useJohn Snow y English physiciany Father of health geography and epidemiology study of diseasesy Traced cholera outbreak in London to a water pump on broad street y Had the handle of the pump disconnected and cholera ratesdeaths dropped
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