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GGR208H5 (49)
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Ch. 3 Geographies of Population The Demographers Tool Box Demography: the study of the characteristics of human populations ex. geographers study the distribution of population (spatial patterns) from international to local level. How places shape populations and how populations shape places Sources of Information census: the count of the number of people in a country, region or city (in canada conducted every 10 years) most gain other information about the population, marital status, previous residence, income..etc vital records: “life” reports births deaths, marriages, divorce and certain infectious diseases, data is collected and kept by provincial and territorial levels of gov’t Family reconstruction: the process of reconstructing individual and family life his- tories by linking together separately, recorded birth, marriage, and death data · Quebec historians have been able to reconstruct the demographic ex- periences of entire communities, using the techniques of family recon- struction and have been able to provide a glimpse into life along the St. Lawrence river nearly 400 years ago · In many cases, it is necessary to utilize numerous other types of data to say something about a past populations size and structure · To get a full picture of what is happening population experts prefer to use a combination of both census and vital record information, censuses give us a far richer data picture Administrative record linkage: the linking together of a number of different gov- ernment databases to build one database with much more detailed information on each individual Ex. Combined tax files with records of employment and immigration data to produce a very rich source of information on large samples of the population Population Distribution and Structure Geographers: explore interrelationships and interdependences btw ppl and places, they are interested in demography (numbers of the population and how they are distributed in certain places), same as the systematic analysis of the num- bers and distribution of human populations - Population geographers bring the “spatial perspective” – that emphasizes description and explanation of the “where” of the population distribution, pat- terns and processes Ch. 3 Geographies of Population - Important aspect to geographers is the world’s population of uneven spatial ex- pression from region to region and place to place - What are the implications and impacts of these differences, what is the cause and consequences of such a distribution? this is what geographers study Population Distribution - Bangladesh and Netherlands have high population densities - India and Egypt have large concentrated populations and low pop. density in other regions of their countries. - degree of accessibility, topography, soil fertility, climate and weather, water availability, and quality, and type of availability of other natural resources are some important factors that shape population distribution - asian is the most populated continent , africa then europe Population Density and Composition - measuring population density: a numerical measure of the relationship btw the number of ppl and some other unit of interest expressed as a ratio - crude density is probably the most common measurement of pop. density crude density (arithmetic density): the total number of ppl divided by the total land area - the limitation is that it is one dimensional. It tells us very little about the oppor- tunities and obstacles that exists btw ppl and land. Hence other tools are needed nutritional density: the ratio btw the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in a given unit of area agricultural density: the ratio btw the total population and the number of agricul- turists per unit of arable land in a specific area - examining population in terms of its composition consists of the subgroups that constitute it (helps gather information on population dynamic) ex. total number of males vs. females, old vs youth baby boom (1947 - 1966): the increased number of births in the 2 decades follow- ing WW2 - knowing the number of woman if childbearing age in a population along with other information can provide info. the future growth potential of that population Ch. 3 Geographies of Population - the variety of social and economic opportunities that are available to groups within a country’s population very much shapes the opportunities and chal- lenges it must confront nationally, regionally and locally. - understanding pop. composition, then, not only can tell us much about the fu- ture demographics of regions but is also quite useful in the present ex. business use population composition data to make marketing decisions and to de- cide where to locate their business - the practice of assessing location and composition of particular populations is known as geographic analysis Age-Sex Pyramids age- sex pyramid: a representation of the population based on its composition ac- cording to age and sex cohort: a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experi- ence dependency ratio: the measure of the economic impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population - in order to assess this measure, demographers divide the population into three groups listed below - this makes is possible to obtain a measure of the dependency of the young and old on the economically active - the most common way for demographers to graphically represent the composi- tion of a population is to construct a age-sex pyramid - canada has had a decline in birth rate since the 1870s (1.4 births per woman) - fewer children being born has had the obvious effect of increasing the propor- tion of the total population made up of older age groups - the population as whole is aging youth cohort: less then 15 years of age and generally considered to be too young to be fully active in the labor force - as the number of students shrink, enrolment declines, closures of schools, camps - socio cultural level--> there will be more ppl over 65 then there are under 16 - consumer analyst will and have already changed target sales audience Ch. 3 Geographies of Population middle cohort: members of the population 15 - 64 years of age who are considered economically active and productive old-age cohort: 65 years of age and older who are considered beyond their econom- ically active and productive years - rely on health care and pension once retired, both issues affected due to the amount of elderly in Canada aging: a term used to describe the affects of an increasing proportion of older age groups on the population participation rate: the proportion of a cohort or group that becomes involved in a specific activity, such as attending an educational institute - reduce university acceptances Population Dynamics and Processes Birth, or Fertility, Rates crude birth rate (CBR): the ratio of the number of live births in a single year for every thousand people in the population - measures the birth rate in terms of total population and not to a specific age group or cohort ex. canada’s birth rate in 2001 was 11 per thousand ppl - economic development is very important in shaping CBR and CDR - an areas CBR is influenced by women’s educational achievement, religion, so- cial customs, diet and health as well as by politics and civil unrest - availbility of birth control methods is important to a country’s region birth rate
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