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University of Toronto Mississauga
Pierre Desrochers

GGR287 031813 Why are we still eating meat? - Animals can turn into high quality proteins - biomass we cannot digest - organic waste / crop surplus / damaged crops - animal crops (lower quality, higher yields) - Increased food security in Subsistence Agriculture (> resiliency) - Humans, physiologically omnivorous - require high quality proteins (vegetarians do not live longer nor are healthier) - dietary transition everywhere when income goes up - wartime > vegan diets never last rDNA Goals Main goals (up to now): to improve - yields - resistance to plant diseases - tolerance of herbicides Future goals: - altering nutrient content of food - reducing allergenic potential - improving efficiency in harsh environments (salt, drought, < nutrient, etc.) Friends of the Earth (2008-11) Alleged Problems with GMOs - yield less than conventional crops - harm the environment - technologically stagnant - have done nothing to help poor farmers - monopolized by few giant corporations Are “Modern” Cultivars less Nutritious? Nutrient density: nutrient content energy content Common claim: modern cultivars are “empty calories” (ie., lower micro-nutrient density) Problems with claim: - seeds larger than they used to be - absolute quantity of micronutrients might be same - bit diluted by high increases in starch & protein Other problems: - people eat diet, not specific food - older varieties yield less & more susceptible to disease Organic Food Foods - produced without modern synthetic inputs - no GMOs - no irradiation - no synthetic food additives - no “routine use” of antibiotics In short, - “farm as organism”, not chemical class “organic” - “organic” defined as what it is not - food production as it was before 20 Ch Quick Overview Fertilizers: Conventional: synthetic & traditional Organic: traditional (manure, compost) Pest Control: Conventional: synthetic pesticides & crop rotations Organic: beneficial insects & birds, traps, crop rotations, “natural” pesticides Weed Control: Conventional: synthetic herbicides, crop rotations, till Organic: crop rotations, till, hand weed, mulch Animals: Conventional: antibiotics, growth hormones, medications Organ
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