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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Pierre Desrochers

Lecture 9 - November 11 (Policy Controversies I: Environment, Biotechnologies, and Organic Production) Continuation from lecture 8 Water: Key Issues (History) • Dry climate - most crop plats need water & must be provided by humans • Significant infrastructure investment & maintenance • Mineral salts in water o Dry or desert areas lose water by evaporation o ~ Increased salinity/mineralization water & soil How to Prevent Soil Salinity while Irrigating? • Lots of good-quality water is applied • Drainage is rapid and efficient • Soils need large infusion of fertilizer (to balance the flushing required to keep them salt- free) • "Sensible civilization should not try to grow wetland crops in arid climates." - Richard Cowen Traditional Refrigeration • Porous pots made of unglazed clay, filled with water and place in open air over night ~ some ice Causes of Food Waste In medium - &high-income countries: • Mostly at consumption stage In low-income countries food: • Mostly during early & middle stages of food supply chain Seed Producers? Historically: • Emerged from best farmers and grain merchants • Vegetable seeds (time consuming to prepare_ • Fodder crops harvest before seed o Maturation (alfalfa, sorghum) • Hybridization technologies o Seeds do not "breed true" Seed Producers'Advantages • New and improved varieties (selection, hybridization, etc) • Storage (protection and availability on demand) • Treatment (Chemical protection against fungus and bacteria) • Production in better regions (outsourcing and quality) • Marketing Pests Definition: Things that significantly reduce plant yields, destroy stored foods Fighting Pests • Encouraging pests' natural enemies (insects, mites, spiders) • Rotating crops • Crop dive
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