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Lecture 10

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR287H5
Professor
Pierre Desrochers
Semester
Fall

Description
Continuation from Lecture #9 FoodAdditives Standard definition • Ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food • # of food additives ~ 2200 Uses • Flavoring and coloring ingredients (majority) • Extend range and flexibility of food processes while reducing costs Antibiotics andAnimals Dairy Cows • Used to treat bacterial infections (as in humans) • Milk needs to be discarded if any trace Lecture #10 - Policy Controversies (Nov. 18) 1.1 - Land Conversion Transforming Nature • Cropland & pastureland (out of forests and wetlands) • Opening up of forests canopy (through cutting o tree sprouts and limbs for fodder and grazing of animals) • Removal of predators & competing wild herbivorous mammals • Worldwide transfer & adaptation of domesticated plants and animals Mitigation Practices Manure and feed management • Improved manure storage (e.g. anaerobic digestion, methane recovery) • Improved feed efficiency, dietary supplements Graving management • Rotational grazing • Improved forage practices What Happened? • Substitute products (fuels, plastics) >>Productivity • Agriculture • Forests • Wood products Case for Livestock Livestock • Feeding people where vegetarian diet will not suffice/not possible Turns into high quality proteins • Human-indigestible products • Low quality crops (bad harvest or grown for livestock) • Crop surplus (in good years) • Organic waste Pros - Modern Production Meat is • Higher quality protein than plant • Create 1 high quality protein per 1.4 plant protein they consume Biotechnologies Genetically modified (GM) foods • Derived from organisms (mostly plants) whose DNA~ modified through introduction of gene from different organism • In a way that does not occur naturally • Selection, bree
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