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GGR 305 Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
T Conway

January 29, 2014 GGR 305 Lecture Notes General Rules of Distribution and Abundance Distribution of scissor tailed flycatcher, only in the black blob, geographic distribution (has an outline of where they are), each circle is a census or inventory and the size is the relative abundance, more information of the species and how many in the region and geographical range. - Comments we can make? High number is around other high numbers, towards the centre and southern it is more abundant and outwards they become less abundant expect for the southern and has high abundance rates up to the edge, could be due to no studies being there, gulf of mexico and a physical barrier that’s affecting its distribution or limiting its distribution - Has a clumped nature and high abundance is in the centre and to the edges its in lower numbers What are the Limiting Factors? Any factor that makes it difficult for an organism to live, grow and reproduce, can be stressful that they can’t reproduce and sustain a population there -physical: temperature, wetness, light -Biological: competition, predation and mutualism - how they all play out -Eury(wide) topic: ecologically tolerant, survive a wide range of conditions, not many physical conditions -Sten(narrow)tropic: lots of physical factors that affect their living Tolerance Zones -land vs water, birds found and other birds not found -Can be a radiant, centre has conditions as optimal and temp can be optimal in order for specie to survive and will be in high abundance. Move away and entre into zones of physiological stress, can survive but not thriving (optimal) and struggling from less conditions and lower populations. Conditions can be so stressful that specie becomes diminished and some optimum temp and has the least stressful population, specie can survive and not optimal. -E.g.  bird (flycatcher) condition is optimal in the middle and the surroundings can survive but not optimal and lower levels of populations -the way we draw species distribution is based on our knowledge January 29, 2014 Temperature and the Eastern Phoebe - Can’t survive in very cold temperature eg. Plant needs photosynthesis to survive, birds or mammals temp also important and for metabolic properties. - Identifying is a limiting factor, we have cold in winter and warm in summer, cold night, warmer in day, limiting factor can be challenging - E.g. eastern Phoebe, dotted line = places that have a minimum Jan temp of -4 and can’t survive there, there Northern geographic extent corresponds to the -4 degrees Celsius. Too cold is a limiting factor along Northern boundary Temperature - Cactus black dots represent a location of where they are present, can survive in short periods of cold and if it’s in the cold for too long it won’t survive, in the South, won’t go cold for a long period of time. Black dots are contradicting because can’t survive for more than 24 hours of cold. But it’s the young cactus that’s sensitive and won’t survive. Found under Nurse tress (also in desert and are short found in the grey areas and have a small cactus, creates a micro climate and its warmer and the young can survive the below freezing conditions) grow so big and outcompete and take over the nurse tree and can then survive the cold temps and populations that have established over time and the microclimate effect can survive in the lower temperatures. The out in the open trees don’t survive and it would die. Low temps are a limiting factor and can expend with a micro climate and to vulnerable temps. Finding Temperature Range - Minimum or the whole, length of period, maximum temp it reaches, too hot for too long needs to sustain heat - Differ species of the plant, planted the species in a long grow (narrow bed of soil) heated and cooled the soil to cold, moderate and high, how many days it took the seeds to germinate (shown in the graphs)  long bed of seed and the temps along the bottom. and y axis has how many days it took to germinate. Low point is the quickest to germinate and the moderate temp was the most successful. Temp low took longer and hotter no seeds germinated at very high temps. - Other specie has a higher optimum range. Temperature: Mammals and Birds - Bergmans Rules: for closely related mammals and birds, the larger form occur at higher latitude - Fined Tuned Rule: body size related to climate, cooler is larger and warmer is smaller forms and is due to larger individuals has a lower __ to surface area - Holes in this: larger has higher food requirements to survive, more energy and more surface area losing more heat, larger forms in colder nothing to do with climate - WHY???  second week and latitude gradient of diversity: higher by equator and lower away from the equator, fewer species in total and more competition and for food and more advantage to being smaller and lower food requirements. January 29, 2014 - Study on wood rats size of the individual had nothing to do with how cold it was but how warm it was, and what they found was that larger wood rats are more stressed in warmer temps and do better than to be large, found in the fossil record and by looking at it today, cooler= larger, warmer = smaller, reaction to how things get and for max July temps and body size of wood rats so Bergmans Rule still holds. Temperature: Mammals - Allen’s Rule: cold environments have shorter extremities relative to body mass - Fox (artic) vs South west - Hares vs foxes and had to find others to match this idea beyond few discussed example - Gloger’s Rule: coloration of related forms is correlated with humidity, why?  Lower levels humidity = lighter and higher level humidity = darker  eg. field mice WHY??? Humid areas has better blending in with dark vegetation and less likely to be eaten vs Leaves not dark and want to blend in the arid vegetation or environments - Predation rates higher for those not part of the environment Moisture - Xerophytes (thrive) Mesophytes (medium) , and hydrophytes(need it) - Needs water and looks to certain mammals and often have evolved mechanisms to minimize these conditions - Talking about plants  arid and wet areas and adaptations - Xerophytes  “Tree of Life” in Africa and often depicted and has a wide trunk. Thrive in arid areas and the trunk stores lots of water and when go through dry and the water in the trunk keeps them alive and mesquite bushes have long tap roots to find little bits of water - Mangroves  went environments and have adapted roots that are above ground and handle the very wet conditions they grow in Light - Can vary across spacious scales, humidity and how it varies across regions, can vary
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