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Lecture 7

GGR313 Lecture 7 (May 28, 2013).docx

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Jeffrey May

GGR313 Lecture 7 - Assignment return date: o Mini essay: June 4 (marks up by June 3) o Final group project proposal: June 6 (note that this gives you one week between this return and the final due date) - Key Terms so far up to last class (bolded are more important) o Masculinity o Femininity o Embodiment o Waves of feminism o Intersectionality o Privilege o Oppression o Discourse o Difference o Marginality o Exclusion o Otherness o Hybridity o Liberalism o Community o Materialism o Social Construction o Race o Racialization o Whiteness o Representation o Public space o Ideology o Transgression - ‘Jumping Scale’ and UK ‘terrorism’ - Remember ‘jumping scale’ from last week’s Ruddick reading? o Just Desserts shooting  Local street fighting  national/international migration - Recent news o Murder in the UK o Islamic radicals who beheaded a British soldier o Another murder of an older Muslim man, but it was not covered in the media as much as the murder of the British soldier - Phil Hubbard, World Cities, Sexuality o Where does Hubbard start?  In the middle, I think o ‘This chapter brings the body into discussions of a sexualized and desiring body whose intimate geographies are integral to the reproduction of global economic systems which thrive on the commodification of desire’ (Hubbard, 2012:2) - Hubbard raises the following concepts (and I’m going to talk about them) o World cities o Hierarchy of world cities o Embodiment of cities o Sex trafficking o ‘globalization from below’ o The ‘end of geography’ - World cities o Talking about the way academics and scholars talk about world cities o What are world cities? o Conventionally, the literature on world cities describes them as the global hubs that organize ever-more complex flows of information, money and people’ (Hubbard, 2012:1) o World cities are defined economically  Based on international production, marketing, finance  ‘command and control centres’ for the global economy o Alpha cities, global cites, world cities are the same thing - High number of MNCs (Multinational Corporations) o Domination of commerce in their regions o Strong links to other world cities  Networks o Increasing role of MNCs in globalization of finance o They’re usually headquarter in the cities - World City Hierarchy o Tier 1: London, New York, and Tokyo o Tier 2: Paris, Hong Kong, Singapore, Milan, Chicago, Shanghai, Dubai o Tier 3: Seoul, Madrid, Sydney, Los Angeles, Mumbai, Toronto, etc; - Remember Ruddick? o Scale and hierarchy are actually socially constructed o Going back to the scale with the tiers, Hubbard also offer similar arguments o A different hierarchy: ‘Examples such as Bangkok and Las Vegas begin to imply that if we were to draw up a roster of erotic cities, it would appear somewhat different to conventional mappings and rankings of world cities’ (Hubbard, 2012:7) - Embodiment and cities o Economic hierarchal structuring of world cities ignores bodies-cities:  These economic dimensions ignore the ‘embodied dimensions or urban life’ (Hubbard, 2012:2) o Bringing it back to bodies!: Grosz, Valentine, Dossa, Nayak, Swanton - Sex trafficking o Hubbard shows how there is an embodied and feminized dimension to world cities through migration and sex work o Sex trafficking: The coercion of a migrant into sexual labour in exchange for some other arrangement, such as the facilitation of migration itself  Often these arrangements never materialize  When people arrive to a location, they are forced to go into sexual slavery - Hubbard’s long quote o Hubbard suggests sexual exploitation is a byproduct of globalization: ‘In a contemporary context, there is much concern that a large proportion – and maybe even a majority – of these men and women will have been trafficked for the express purpose of sexual exploitation. This is tied into the identification of trafficking as a significant byproduct of the thickening of global networks, with ‘the growth of shadow economies and transnational criminal networks' a ‘negative manifestation of globalization, arising from expanding economic, political and social transnational linkages that are increasingly beyond local and state control' (Goodey 2003: 417) (Hubbard, 2012: 8)  It’s because of globalization, it shapes globalization, and it is globalization  Things such as sex trafficking helps to shape globalization  People thought that globalization was going to be a good thing, but instead, it facilitates large flow of people that are not good for p
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