Spanish success not attributable to
=native allies (people hating incas and Aztecs)
-horses/weapons (scaring those who had never seen armor and horses and hear
-being mistaken for Gods (Cortez returned in a year where when a God was supposed to come
back and extract vengeance
BUT TO A FEW PROXIMATE FACTORS
1. Weapons/Horses. Steel against no armor. Horses fast and could be used to send messages and
to catch scouts. The advantage was not that it was new and scary. Wood weapons and the
weapons of Incas no match against armor.
2. Smallpox already decimated Inca empire. Small pox also led to the civil war because a king was
killed by it and they thought it was a conspiracy??
3. No naval power for Americas
4. Political organization (Europeans)
5. Writing. Which allowed messages to be sent and better communication.
Main criticism: Invasions ultimately “succeeded not through fighting, but when influx of settlers was
large enough to overwhelm na