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Lecture 8

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Gabrielle Sauter

Lecture 8 Urbanization and the urban environment -generally, urbanization is coupled with economic growth, but in the case of many cities in the south, this has not been the case - lots of people shifted to urban areas moving away from agriculture for more jobs Urbanization urban centes: almost always larger than 20,000 residents, but can also include smaller settlements -cities: generally larger, no consensus Why study urban issues in the developing world 1. 95% of the predicted population growth will take place in the urban areas of the developing world 2. urban and rural areas are affected by different enviornmental problems -urband dwellers face a different set of environmetal risks than their rural counterparts. For example, infromal settlements in many cities of Latin America can be located in dense areas on very steep inclines that are subject to landslides when there are heavy rains 3. Many urban centers in Latin America, Africa and Asia are increasingly located in areas of ecological fragility and previously sparesely inhabited (former logging areas, wetlands, etc.) 4. Urban expansion without effective urban governance means a substantial proportion of the population faces high levels of risk from natural and human-induced environmental hazards -gated communities, have security and internal roads, often with communal facilities like schools and shops - if you start with a low population then any increase in the that population will seem like a high crazy population growth. so many northern cities have gone through this growth already. south is going through it now and thus stats make it look like there is alot of growth reason number 2 is decolonization. preciously during colonization many were not allowed to live in the city but now that they could were now moving into the city saps also resulting in the push towards city outside of agriculture. neoliberal policies started to implemented in th
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