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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Grace Barakat

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Determinants of Health v Health models and health outcomes - Bio-psychosocial (BPS) model of health and illness: biological(body) + psychological(mind) + sociological(social) = health outcomes v Video: Application of BPS for managing chronic pain - Need to understand the biological base, psychological factors, and social factors that relate to illness - Prevention: if we construct social environment we can prevent people from exposing to illness - Biomedical model of pain – pain killers, psychological factors that contribute to pain (people‟s feeling) is easily ignored. If health practitioners trained to deliver stress management, patients would be better off v Health outcomes - Health status: mortality, sick days, symptoms, survival periods, ER visits - Health-related quality of life - Psychological factors: discomfort, perceived health v Generic health outcomes -clinical markersàspecific symptomsàimpact of disease-specific problemsàgeneric functioning, well-being and evaluation v Developments - Focused on prediction and risk management for avoiding health and disease outcome v Trends in health outcomes - Positive measures of health - well-being, ability, comfort, and quality of life - Goal: to examine the pros and cons of health treatments v Perceived health outcomes – how to measure? - Questions related to physical and mental functioning activities, life enjoyment, treatment preferences and adherence v Lay knowledge of health - Absence of disease - Feeling strong (psychological aspect) - Functional capacity - Being fit and physically active (well-being aspects) - Being able to cope with stress - Socially active (functional aspect) - Mental health v Individual‟s definition of illness? - Infection - Heredity - Agents - Environment - High-social status: illness related to social-status - Low-social status: illness caused by social factors v Disability paradox: people with serious illness report they have excellent quality of life - Adjustment - Self-efficacy: believes in themselves - Supportive relationships v Lay concepts of causation - Urban environment - Germs - Genetics - Lifestyles v Various definitions of health - Medical: state of being whole, free from physical and mental disease or pain, body carry on proper function - Psychology: interplay of biological, psychological and social - Ecology: interplay of organism and biosphere - Sociology: role of social environment - WHO: state of complete physical, mental and social well-being v Social determinants of health: - Employment, social status, income, education, housing v Population health perspe
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