3 Main Types of Reviews
synthesize the results and conclusions of 2 or more publications on a given topic
2. Overview / systematic literature review
comprehensively identify and track down all the literature on a given topic
3. Meta-analysis (quantitative approach)
technique that combines pooled datasets from different studies and analyzes them in
order to reach a single observation for the aggregated data
eg : smoking and lung cancer
Basis of theoretical framework
A. (what’s theoretically known about the subject?)
A. What are the issues of using certain method? How to improve the research?
Objective of Literature Reviews
1. To broaden the knowledge base
A. (synthesize and increase the knowledge base)
2. Gives information on methods and procedures
A. How to address limitation?
B. What’s been done and zoom in to specifically onto small individual subjects which
you are interested in
scientific tool which can be used to summarize, appraise, and communicate the results
and implications of otherwise unmanageable quantities of research
Published and unpublished ‘grey’ literature. (Toronto Public Health Reports)
Aim : reduce bias
Why are Systematic Reviews are important?
Systematic approach in identification and evaluation of materials
Objectiveness in interpretation
o Need to state what methods are used, how many papers are reviewed and so on.
Therefore, others can conduct the same research.
The problem – scope of research
Issues that are the basis of your study
Specify various aspects of / perspectives on these issues
Identify gaps in knowledge
What are the main research questions that you would like to answer through your study?
What knowledge is out there? (Diff. opinions)
Develop a rational - how will the study fill the identified gaps?
Main objectives – central thrust of your study
Sub-objectives – identify specific issues you propose to examine
Each sub-objective should delineate only one issue Numerically listed
Use of action-oriented words – ‘to determine’, ‘to find out’, ‘to ascertain’
A hypothesis is a statement of:
o assumptions about the prevalence of a phenomenon
o or about a relationship between two variables
A study can have more than 1 hypothesis (But, not all studies require it)
Methodology – Study Design
Include enough detail to allow another research to follow the same procedure
o Study population?
o Can each element of the study population be identified?
o Sample or total population?
o How will you get in touch with the selected sample?
o How will consent be obtained?
o How will the data be collected ?
o Return address? Reminder?
o How will confidentiality be preserved?
o Providing contact information for respondents
Describe the organisation, agency or community
o If study is about people, highlight salient characteristics (history, size,
o Institution...what are its main services, admi