Class Notes (806,814)
Canada (492,451)
Geography (610)
GGR365H5 (4)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Pierre Desrochers

GGR333 Lecture 2: Transportation Historically, 3 main forms of migration… 1. Elite migrations a. From core to periphery of empires in acts of conquest and conversion followed by settlers; 2. Elite & mass migrations a. To imperial cores & cities from hinterlands and countryside in search of work; 3. Expansion & contraction of nomadic societies a. Most of these have been regional in scope, though i. Early Islamic ii. later Mongol Empires 1. had global reach Cities & Economic Development - Agglomeration economies/division of labour o “necessarily the man who spends all his time and trouble on the smallest task will do that task the best” (Xenophon) - Knowledge spillovers & trust o Knowledge developed to solve problems in one particular line of work helps to solve problems in other lines of work o Word used in one context can be completely different in another o Cross-fertilization of ideas across lines of work but also within the same line of work; having different people who specialize in different - Transportation hub - Concentrated markets Transportation systems: - Means by which o Materials o Products o Other tangible entities (including people) - Are transferred from place to place - Medium(s) o Land o Water o Air Land transportation (up to 19 C) - Average overland horse speed ~ 8-15 km/h (comparable to maritime transportation) - Pack horse ~ 125 kg, camel ~ 200 kg - 16 C: England, stage coach ~ <5 km/h; - 18 C: Moving 1 ton of cargo (50 km) inland in US ~ as costly as moving it across the Atlantic Bottom Line: th - Before 19 C o Long-distance trade limited o Cities < 20 km o Trade in perishable commodities < 50 kms o Emphasis: high-value & non-perishable goods  Spices,  Silk  Perfume  Precious metals, jewellery  Salt, grains, olive oil, wine (Mediterranean)  Grain, salt, wine, wool, timber & stone (Hanseatic League) o Silk route In time… GGR333 - Railway & steamship (Suez & Panama) - Commercial jet aircraft - Containerization ~ Dramatic decline - Time & relative cost of moving o Materials o Products o People Lecture 3 Bulk shipping – big ships that you fill with: - Petroleum - Grain - Cement - Coal - Etc. - Not one big storage space, bunch of tanks isolated from one another Oil tankers Ultra Large Crude Carrier RORO vessels – move cars between different parts of the world (roll on/roll off) LOLO vessels (break off) – lift on/lift off Break bulk shipping – made up of a lot of little things Containerization: Advantages - Downward arrows o Transportation costs o Time - Enhanced reliability - Reduced pilferage and theft - Slashed insurance prices Containerization: Benefits - Increase in volume of international trade - Creation of complex o “just in time” supply & manufacturing chains o Built around geographically dispersed production of intermediary goods - Rapid industrialization of China - Significant decline in price of consumer goods Air cargo: - Highly valuable - Highly perishable Envirotrainer Container RKN-LD-3: - Temperature controlled (smaller) container - Thermostat-controlled heat exchanger with dry ice as refrigerant - Compatible with trucks Transport Networks & Diseases - Infectious disease pandemics - Vector invasion events - Vector-borne pathogen importation GGR333 Lecture 4: The Battle of Ideas, 1 Economists’ Critique - Because of o Incentive problem o Not part of larger division of labour - Islands of socialism = islands of misery - [Only exceptions are religious communities or very small group (<150)] The Case for Central Planning - Production for use instead of profits o Rationalize production o Increase productivity o End struggles between rich/poor o Eliminate waste Communist Party  Gosplan  Ministries  Directors Mises’ Critique of Socialism - Traditional critique of socialism: o Incentives
More Less

Related notes for GGR365H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.