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Lecture 5

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR378H5
Professor
Barbara Murck
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 4 Geophysical Hazards: Earthquakes Earthquakes: An Overview of Seismic Hazards  Basic terminology  Earthquake mechanisms  Earthquake impacts  Magnitude  Measuring magnitudes  Magnitude-frequency relationship  Mitigation of seismic hazards  Prediction and forecasting Tōhoku & Fukushima Dai-Ichi: Cascading Disasters  Friday, March 11, 2011  M =W9.0  Focal depth = 30 km subduction zone  Earthquake → tsunami → coastal flooding → nuclear explosion  Classic secondary impacts  Deaths >15,700  Damage >$309 billion Haiti Earthquake: The Perfect Catastrophe  Tuesday, January 12, 2010  M = 7.0 W  Focal depth = 13 km  Strike-slip fault  Deaths 230,000  Damage $7.8 billion 1. Probability of exposure to hazardous process – tectonic plate boundary 2. Extreme vulnerability due to a wide range of factors A note about “Cost” Source: World Bank, 2011  Damage = replacement value of physical assets wholly or partly destroyed, built to the same standards as prevailed prior to the disaster  Losses = economic disruption resulting from the temporary absence of damaged assets  From the damage and losses, the disaster’s impact on economic performance, employment, and poverty can be assessed  Need takes into account the activities of recovery, reconstruction, and reestablishment of governance activities Haiti: The Perfect Catastrophe risk = hazard ∩ vulnerability Vulnerability factors: 1. Minimal perception of risk 2. Recent exposure to disaster 3. Very high population density 4. Extreme poverty 5. Poor infrastructure 6. Weak governance 7. Lack of preparation 8. Lack of capacity to recover Earthquakes: An Overview of Seismic Hazards  Basic terminology  Earthquake mechanisms  Earthquake impacts  Magnitude  Measuring magnitudes  Magnitude-frequency relationship  Mitigation of seismic hazards  Prediction and forecasting Earthquakes occur as a result of the build-up and release of strain energy in blocks of rock subjected to tectonic forces. Earthquakes: Basic Terminology  Earthquake: ground shaking that accompanies the release of energy caused by fracturing of rocks due to plate motion  Fault: rock fracture along which relative movement occurs  Focus: initial point of rupture along a fault  Focal depth influences earthquake impacts  Epicentre: point on the surface directly above the focus Earthquake Impacts  Primary effects: caused directly by rock breaking and movement along the fault  Ground shaking  Surface rupture  Fault scarps  Changes in groundwater  (Building collapse)  Secondary effects: subsequent results – caused by shaking  Building collapse  Landslides  Tsunami  Liquefaction, subsidence  Fires – gas main & water main breaks  Disease  Temporary disruption of social services  Tertiary effects: subsequent, indirect, long-term impacts
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