GGR208H5 Lecture 11: GGR208 LECTURE 11

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Published on 29 Mar 2018
School
UTM
Department
Geography
Course
GGR208H5
Professor
GGR208 LECTURE 11
- Short essay
o Worth 20%
o Intro 100
o Last part 200
o Should be around 600-700 words
o Be concise engage each of those authors so that they are talking each other about the
topic
o Eg: if u choose boyle gender issue has not been addressed in an exhaustive way within
lit and pop geo
Look at what the other authors would say related to the issue of pop and
gender studies
How would another author tackle this topic
o Choose 1 topic based on the 4 pieces you decide to read
o Pick the sources and start a review for all resources approx. 500 words
o Write topic-wise not author-wise
o Expected refer to slides and previous notes
- Cities
o 2016 % of the orld’s pop lied i ura areas
49% in LEDCs
78% in MEDCs
o We can also speak of the rate of urbanization, or how quickly urbanization is occurring
Rate of urbanization in 2010 0.3% in economically developed countries
1.2% in LEDCs
1.7% in least economically developed countries
o World projected to have 41 megacities with pop exceeding 10 million inhabitants
Growth of urban areas driven by natural increase, rural to urban migration, and
urban reclassification as cities are redefined from smaller units
o Clean water, better access to healthcare spread across the world, increasing infant life
expectancy natural increase
o Idea of urban reclassification
Champion article polycentric urban regime
- Defining urban and urbanization
o Urban any place that is nonrural
o Urbanization the process that transforms a pop from rural to urban
Represents a fundamental reorganization of human society, moving it away
from a rural, agrarian-based society to one based around non-agricultural
activities
We can think of urbanization as a form of special and political org.
o definitions of what constitutes urban typically also include the notion that urban areas
are centres of tech change and innovation and have a special concentration of power
and economic activity
eg: silicone valley
emerging innovation and the building of the knowledge-based economy
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demographers why is it that when we urbanize, these dynamics
emerge?
Image
1950s when the subway was being built
Development of the subway system was one of the reasons why there
were so many people moving to urban spaces
- Urbanization in Canada
o 2014 UN report Canada ranks 40th in the world in terms of urbanization
More than US and Germany but less than Japan
o Imp characteristic of Canadian urbanization is distinct regional variations reflecting the
diff economic bases of provinces and territories.
ON, QB and BC have maintained proportions pf urban pop at or higher than the
national avg
More recently joined by AB
o Some long-established centres have lost their pop
NFL lost their younger pop
o Movement of specific groups of people from one area to another
o Change in terms of the number of people living in particular places
o Champion when u have a polycentric urban regime, its easier to see what happens
with them
o The centers numbers would decrease at the expense of the centres around the urban
areas
- Brief history of urbanization
o Early cities through the middle ages
Early urbanization dates from 3500-3000 bc in the fertile crescent of modern
day Iraq and iran
2500 bc, cities appeared in the Indus Valley and china
Ancient rome had a pop of approx. 500,000 but other cities, such as Athens
were smaller
In both cases, the majority of the people lived as subsistence farmers in
the countryside
o Three broad explanations for the emergence of the early urban areas
First, the surplus theory argues that cities arose after agricultural surpluses.
Locations that allowed agricultural production and irrigation such as the Indus
Valley contributed to agricultural surpluses, which, in turn, freed workers from
the land and allowed them to specialize in other tasks, including governance,
manufacturing, or religion
At some point in our development as humans, we moved beyond the
idea of hunting and gathering to settling and producing agriculture
o Enough to feed ourselves and store the surplus
Idea of producing a surplus becoming powerful bc then u come to the
point where ppl ask who controls the surplus
Profit today e do’t see it as agriultural surplus; it eoes sth a
corp uses to put it back into its system
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Document Summary

500 words: write topic-wise not author-wise, expected refer to slides and previous notes. Idea of urban reclassification: champion article polycentric urban regime. Image: 1950s when the subway was being built, development of the subway system was one of the reasons why there were so many people moving to urban spaces. Urbanization in canada: 2014 un report canada ranks 40th in the world in terms of urbanization, more than us and germany but less than japan. 500,000 but other cities, such as athens were smaller. In both cases, the majority of the people lived as subsistence farmers in the countryside: three broad explanations for the emergence of the early urban areas, first, the surplus theory argues that cities arose after agricultural surpluses. Locations that allowed agricultural production and irrigation such as the indus. Importance of religion becomes more prominent in europe: state is the only body that has the power to use force (police, army)

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