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Core: regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and high levels of productivity within diversified economies. Regions are characterized by dependent and disadvantageous trading relationships, obsolete technologies and undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity. These terms are similar to first/third world", global north/south", Critical point: the success of core regions is dependent on control and exploitation of periphery regions not natural. Life expectancy: current and recent age-sex- specific death rates of population. Third essential element after van de kaa and demographic transition being first and second. Has become a permanent part of population change for a lot of countries and regions. Is a long distance move to a new location. Emigration: movement away from a location (out-migration) Immigration: is movement into a location (in-migration) Internal migration: moves within a country or region (region to region, city to city) International migration: moves between countries (from one to another.