Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
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Geography (800)
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Lecture

GGR208H5 Lecture Notes - Total Fertility Rate, Vital Record, Dependency Ratio


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR208H5
Professor
Tan

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Ch. 3 Geographies of Population
The Demographers Tool Box
Demography: the study of the characteristics of human populations ex. geographers
study the distribution of population (spatial patterns) from international to local level.
How places shape populations and how populations shape places
Sources of Information
census: the count of the number of people in a country, region or city (in canada
conducted every 10 years) most gain other information about the population, marital
status, previous residence, income..etc
vital records: “life” reports births deaths, marriages, divorce and certain infectious
diseases, data is collected and kept by provincial and territorial levels of gov’t
Family reconstruction: the process of reconstructing individual and family life his-
tories by linking together separately, recorded birth, marriage, and death data
·Quebec historians have been able to reconstruct the demographic ex-
periences of entire communities, using the techniques of family recon-
struction and have been able to provide a glimpse into life along the St.
Lawrence river nearly 400 years ago
·In many cases, it is necessary to utilize numerous other types of data to
say something about a past populations size and structure
·To get a full picture of what is happening population experts prefer to
use a combination of both census and vital record information, censuses
give us a far richer data picture
Administrative record linkage: the linking together of a number of different gov-
ernment databases to build one database with much more detailed information on
each individual
Ex. Combined tax files with records of employment and immigration data to produce a
very rich source of information on large samples of the population
Population Distribution and Structure
Geographers: explore interrelationships and interdependences btw ppl and places,
they are interested in demography (numbers of the population and how they
are distributed in certain places), same as the systematic analysis of the num-
bers and distribution of human populations
-Population geographers bring the “spatial perspective” – that emphasizes
description and explanation of the where” of the population distribution, pat-
terns and processes

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Ch. 3 Geographies of Population
-Important aspect to geographers is the world’s population of uneven spatial ex-
pression from region to region and place to place
-What are the implications and impacts of these differences, what is the cause
and consequences of such a distribution? this is what geographers study
Population Distribution
- Bangladesh and Netherlands have high population densities
-India and Egypt have large concentrated populations and low pop. density in
other regions of their countries.
-degree of accessibility, topography, soil fertility, climate and weather, water
availability, and quality, and type of availability of other natural resources are
some important factors that shape population distribution
- asian is the most populated continent , africa then europe
Population Density and Composition
-measuring population density: a numerical measure of the relationship btw the
number of ppl and some other unit of interest expressed as a ratio
-crude density is probably the most common measurement of pop. density
crude density (arithmetic density): the total number of ppl divided by the total
land area
-the limitation is that it is one dimensional. It tells us very little about the oppor-
tunities and obstacles that exists btw ppl and land. Hence other tools are needed
nutritional density: the ratio btw the total population and the amount of land under
cultivation in a given unit of area
agricultural density: the ratio btw the total population and the number of agricul-
turists per unit of arable land in a specific area
-examining population in terms of its composition consists of the subgroups that
constitute it (helps gather information on population dynamic) ex. total number
of males vs. females, old vs youth
baby boom (1947 - 1966): the increased number of births in the 2 decades follow-
ing WW2
-knowing the number of woman if childbearing age in a population along with
other information can provide info. the future growth potential of that population
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Ch. 3 Geographies of Population
-the variety of social and economic opportunities that are available to groups
within a country’s population very much shapes the opportunities and chal-
lenges it must confront nationally, regionally and locally.
-understanding pop. composition, then, not only can tell us much about the fu-
ture demographics of regions but is also quite useful in the present
ex. business use population composition data to make marketing decisions and to de-
cide where to locate their business
-the practice of assessing location and composition of particular populations is
known as geographic analysis
Age-Sex Pyramids
age- sex pyramid: a representation of the population based on its composition ac-
cording to age and sex
cohort: a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experi-
ence
dependency ratio: the measure of the economic impact of the young and old on the
more economically productive members of the population
-in order to assess this measure, demographers divide the population into three
groups listed below
-this makes is possible to obtain a measure of the dependency of the young and
old on the economically active
-the most common way for demographers to graphically represent the composi-
tion of a population is to construct a age-sex pyramid
-canada has had a decline in birth rate since the 1870s (1.4 births per woman)
-fewer children being born has had the obvious effect of increasing the propor-
tion of the total population made up of older age groups
-the population as whole is aging
youth cohort: less then 15 years of age and generally considered to be too young to
be fully active in the labor force
-as the number of students shrink, enrolment declines, closures of schools,
camps
-socio cultural level--> there will be more ppl over 65 then there are under 16
-consumer analyst will and have already changed target sales audience
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