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HIS261H5 Lecture Notes - English Canada, Lower Canada, Big Country

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Richard White

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Recap BNA c. 1830
British territory, increasing number of Scottish & Irish were involved in farming viable,
agricultural communities got established. Fishery communities & settlement continued to grow
slowly, the lumber industry got established in the Atlantic colonies, created into a ship building,
hand tools used to build ships, ships carried logs, industry of their own and transport industry. In
these years early decades world renowned as successful shipping colony that carried goods all
around the world, some point in this era, well known for their speed, one famous ship the blue
nose, on our dime, iconic image of nova scotia’s shipping. Names and political boundaries took
shape, St.Johns island now formally changed to PEI, early 19th century colonies established and
distinguished from American colonies. Possibility of NS becoming one of the 14 colonies that
rebelled and separated, by 30/40s from 1830s. largest colony was Canada, loyalist migration,
English Canada was followed by influx of American settlers, confirmed boundary. Lower
Canada remained heart of Canada, headquarter of gov + majority of population, growing
prosperity, profitable commercial agriculture and logging. Immigration coming upper and lower
quebec was a main arrival for all immigrants, due to the water route. Shallow near Quebec, sea
port for centuries. Population growth from immigration didn’t go into the senural lands, went
into eastern townships and else where. Rupert’s Land. Boundary was open, territory under
authority of Hudsons bay.. key points: creation of USA, had to go to the north west, went further
north and west,most of the posts in the area, some settlement beginning in present day Winnipeg,
some pressure competing,
Took refuge in
- Pacific Coast: 1790s, Canadian traders accessed pacific coast, american traders came up,
Lousiana purchase: mapped it on the American government, Canadians coming down, british
claiming from seea.. several interest converging on this territory. Canadians and americans who
first began setting up formal post, jointly occupied it, Canadians coming out of Montreal but
their british, because Canadians are British in those days, what happened is the British and
Americans agreed their would be joint occupation, 1818: 49th parallel Canada and America
barrier, 1846, 20years this area was jointly occupied, half british half American, early on
Americans concentreated their settlement in the area, 1846
Boils down: by 1820/30s another element to british north America, hard to know what to call it,
pacific north west, british Columbia because this territory is often called the british territory, and
british name stuck.
- three concluding points: 1) British, clearly territory, under british authority, trade even in
Ruperts land, was going directly to Britain, BC was existed, trade connections with Britain and
Athletic colonies and Canada, beginning of Immigration to 1818. Not just a question of
authority. 2) British, but different from social/economic basis. BC economy was tied to America,
significant settlement to California, easier to trade than to go inland, close connections to those
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developing north west. Ruperts land fur trade: close relationship with bay and natives, no fur
trade in Canada or communication between Canada and rupers land, quite different in social
makeup.. 3) lack of communication among them. Atlantic colonies 4 canada sort of 2, ruperts
land, and BC.. these four or five places are not communicated with eachother, lack of
communication and trade to connection to canaa. NS and NFLD look to sea, communicate with
Britain, didn’t trade inland to Canada. Atlantic colonies had no way of communication. Boils
down to four or 5 of routes to canadas region.
a) brutishness b) differences.. than lead to idea of regions of Canada. Uniqueness of Canada NS
was different from Canada.. c) non communication/absence of communication tht doesn’t lead to
Canada 1 1830s largest most populist, overwhelming in dominance in BNA. Those that no
confederation occurred in 1867, why the name Canada was used for new country, dominant
country of them all. Name of one colony used for big country not coincidece
- dominant colony
- Upper Canada: pioneer society: most visible place where the growth happening was upper
Canada, more farm land, produce every year, more suddle society. Most were disperse around
the country side, towns developed where the merchants set up, sold to customers around,
Towns and farms being established.
Pioneer: huge amount of physical work, live for future, chop down barns etc, sacrifice that goes
on from present to the next, few formal institution unless you physically build them. Family
cooperation, all farmers from 20miles come together to build one families barn. No labor, all
settlers would achieve something collectively. Try to establish a farm to get out of the pioneer
society, romatic appearance from affar, but everyone was trying to get out of it. less strict social
hierarchy, people who came from England from backwards of Canada, shocked by this. If your
servant saved up money he could buy his own land, shocking to the English, freedom servants
would speak to you by your first name. money & class were not irrelevant. Pioneer risky society,
without doctor near by, if you injuryed you would die. Very little to fall back on without social
institutions that we have create, removed the risk of life.
Lots of examples of the old world society coming over to pioneer.
- Lower Canada: growth and change: preindustry being changed, lots of English speaking
people, not much effecting sunerial arreas, lots of enligs speaking people, working in forest
industry, done on the fringes, significant number of Irish immigrants, social division in lumber
camps. Many remained to work in the port.hall the goods around, put it on the ship unload the
ship and lots of jobs growing ports of Quebec. Eventually
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