HIS261H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Lower Canada, English Canada, North West Company
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HIS261 LECTURE 5 February 4th, 2013
Recap: BNA c. 1830
- Pacific coast
- Three concluding points
- Dominant colony
- Upper Canada: pioneer society
- Lower Canada: growth and change
- Rebellions of 1837
- Durham report
- Responsible government
- Continuing growth
- New values
Test – choose 3 out of the 4.
- taken quotes from the textbook – explain them
- British North America – modern day Canada
o Left over from what Americans’ didn’t want in 1783 – after American
o This territory taking shape is British
o Increasing number of them were Irish and Scottish
o Most settlers who came were farming, growing season was short but
it was still viable if not prosperous
o Fishing in newfoundland
o Lumbar industry in Atlantic colonies – fed the ship building industry
in new Brunswick in 20s, 30s, 40s
o Ship also used to carry logs – as exports – dual purpose, so a industry
of their own and also a transport industry which also began to
o Nova scotia – became a successful shipping colony – had good ships
and carried goods all around the world form British empire – also well
known for this speed – multiple sales that could travel very fast – very
famous known as blue knows – iconic image still there –
reconstructed in the 1920s, 1930s.
o Political boundaries – St. Johns Island (prince Edward island)
formerly changed now. Cape island part of Nova Scotia. Boundary
with united states – separating new Brunswick
o Early 19the century – colonies well established and distinguished
- Images from book: Logging in northern New Brunswick.
- Most largest and populous colony was CANADA
o English Canada had been hatched – rapid influx of American settlers,
war of 1812 confirmed boundary between them.
o Lower Canada – heart of Canada – headquarters of Canada, growing
prosperous place, agriculture, commercial, logging, and lots of
population. Immigration coming to both lower and upper.
Québec was the major portal arrival for immigrants – since
Cartier’s time – major sea port
Population growth – did not go into sensorial land, instead
went to eastern townships and elsewhere
o Ruperts land (Hudson bay, fur trading company) – boundary used to
be open to north west company – now its differ – not really ruperts
o Fur trade went further north and west (not south as of American
o Most ports were
o Settlement beginning in present day Winnipeg (siniboin and red
river)- competing – settlement beginning there – both metis
o Fort Garry hotel
o The ambulation – furs did not go out through Montréal any more – as
they went out through the bay
o Pacific coast
Explored by Spanish, Russians fur traders– travelled through
Late 18th century – until anything formal occurred – captain
james cute – took regue in one of these island – nute casound
(inland) – in 1779 – encountered native people just like cartier
did 100 years ago – but obviously they knew of indigenous
people- but the interaction was the same
Captain Vancouver chartered the area closely in 1790s and
Penetrated by both American and Canadian traders in 1790s –
montreal fur trade company is still on – both of them are
accessing the area
1803 – acquired it (louisana purchase) and then began to
several interests converging on this territory by 1800s
British through the sea
Canadians (who were basically British) and American’s jointly
1818 – territory = 49th parallel confirmed between canada and
usa (the prairies) but the mountains were not marked – so they
decided to joint occupancy
1846 – this ended
americans on the Columbia river while British on the Hudson
bay company (no longer connected to montreal) – built a new
post on Vancouver island on 1843 called victoria – so cleared
that the 49th parallel would be extended to the mountains
which it did in 1846
by 1820s, 1830s – another element of British north America –
British Columbia (Columbia territory as Columbia river ran
through it) informally known
3 things to conclude:
1) It was British territory – under its authority – trade. BC forming. Ruperts
land still existed. Beginning of Immigration after 1815 to Canada and
colonies. Not a question of authortity – but it is a rbtiish colony all across
2) Though all were British – they were different economically and social basis.
BC based more on America – significant settlement to trade with California –
close connection to it. In ruperts land – fur to the bay, to the natives, no fur
trade in Canada. No communication between ruperts land and Canada.
UNIQUESNESS, REGIONS OF CANADA FORMED.
3) Lack of communication among them.
4 Atlantic colonies
Canada – 2 (upper and lower)
- they were very different from each other. Lac of trade and communication.
No easy way to communicate. Nova scotia/Brunswick – didn’t trade in land,
more towards the sea and britian
- these 4 or 5 areas of roots of canada’s region.
- Canada is said to have regions! – BC, Ontario
- Regions of Canada taking shape
Largest and most populous – even more so by 1860s – more overwhelming
in numbers, economic activity, and its dominance
Why the name of Canada used? – BECAUSE it was the dominant colony of all.
Annexation by Canada for the rest of British Canada – the confederation.
Name of one of the colony used to name the big country
Population of upper Canada is much more dispersed – more concentrated in
Most visible place where growth was happening is Upper Canada – more
farmland being cleared, more settled society, houses, roads, churches being
built – 300 thousand population in upper Canada by 1830s. most were
dispersed. Towns becoming established along water shores especially.
Towns developed where merchants were set up – goods received and could
be sold to customers around. Toronto – town of York (5000 population).
Test choose 3 out of the 4. taken quotes from the textbook explain them. Boundary with united states separating new brunswick: early 19the century colonies well established and distinguished. Images from book: logging in northern new brunswick. Qu bec was the major portal arrival for immigrants since. Explored by spanish, russians fur traders travelled through water. Captain vancouver chartered the area closely in 1790s and claimed it. Penetrated by both american and canadian traders in 1790s montreal fur trade company is still on both of them are accessing the area. 1803 acquired it (louisana purchase) and then began to explore it. Several interests converging on this territory by 1800s. Canadians (who were basically british) and american"s jointly occupied it. 1818 territory = 49th parallel confirmed between canada and usa (the prairies) but the mountains were not marked so they decided to joint occupancy. By 1820s, 1830s another element of british north america .