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Lecture 10

HIS284H5 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Taiping Rebellion, Sun Yat-Sen, Yuan Shikai

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Tong Lam

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Revoluon and Change
The Breaking Point
Centralizaon of power – Naonalizaon of the railway network
o The local provincial elites put down the rebellions since the central government didn’t
have the power
This caused a shi in power, elites gained power
Vital in the collapse of the dynasty
Elites tried to save the empire by modernizing the industry and military, but
done by their own hands
Done at a local level
Everyone built their own railways with their own standards, this
prevented trains from going between areas
o Needed coordinaon
o In the nal years they tried regaining power
Tried taking it from elites, even though they were trying to save the empire
o The court tried centralizing the power aer this decentralizaon
The constant aempt by local elites to have more say was constantly rejected by
the court
Eventually failed
Alienated the people trying to save power
Both groups shared the same agendas, but conicts because who wanted to rule
o The Qings aempts to take back the railways systems
Tried to buy them from the provincial elites so they could centralize it
Provincial elites didn’t want to since their power relied on it since the
Taiping rebellion, and they were the ones who started it
o Started looking at the Qing (Manchu) with racist terms
Used social Darwinism against them
Manchu elites were looked down and blamed
o Court needed money, local merchants were already aligned with local elites
Local merchants invested in the railways
They didn’t want to lose their investments to the court
Wuhan uprising/Revoluon of 1911
o Sun Yatsen tried rebellions, but failed
Predicted there would be rebellions anyways
Before the autumn of 1911 this happened
o Rebellions happened without him
The revoluonary alliance
Tried to set o a bomb, failed, caused the revoluonaries to move up
dates because they were discovered
Held up the governor and made them join their because they needed a
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o Demanded independence
o Revolts/uprising/restoraon/independence
In the eyes of the provincial elites, the Manchus were no longer competent
Being seen as foreigners
Thought they were trying to sell out the country to foreign powers
One aer another all the provinces declared independence
Revoluon of 1911
Restoring the pride of the Han Chinese
Not that similar to the Meiji restoraons
o Didn’t want to return to the old ways
o Provinces declared independence
The Abdicaon of the Qing Dynasty (1912) and the Rise of the Republic of China
o Yuan Shikai (1859-1916) and his New Army
The local elites created a new army called the “New Army”
Saw the balance of power was in his hands, the New Army could be used against
or with the revoluonaries
o The Republic was founded in 1912, ending the Qing Empire
End of the empire was the polical and military moving
All the generals were no longer working under the Qing
o Tried making a pure Han Chinese state
Large amount of minories in China, it was impossible because it was
already a mul ethnic naon
Saw they could build a bigger naon
The conuences of internal and external factors
Imperialism and the ideology of Social Darwinism
An-Manchu senments/Naonalism/Racism
o Even though older ocials tried to preserve the empire, younger people had An-
Manchu senments
o Young people couldn’t become ocials aer the imperial examinaons were abolished
in 1905, mind as well just join the rebellions
Internal polical divisions
Inux of Western ideas
o Sun Yatsen had a western educaon, spent a lot of his life in Hawaii
Saw alternaves to the current rule
Was the Qings collapse inevitable?
o Was almost working, fell because of lost opportunies
The Unnished Revoluon
Republic of China (1912-)
o Technically sll around (re-founded under the same name by the communists)
Canton (Guangzhou)
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