Background to cold war

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8 Feb 2011
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Background to the cold war
Lecture notes will be available on black board
Beginning of the 20th century
Old Europe
1914 pre-WWI contained 4 big empires: Imperial Germany, imperial Russia, Austria-
Hungary and ottoman Turkish empire
The largest was the british empire- Africa, asia, and dominons of Canada and
austraila
Rissian empire extened to parts of northern china/Manchuria
The Japanese had built a strong industrial state and would plan to take control
china and korea
The Turkish empire
The first world war occurs and most empires diminish see slides
Poland, checz, Yugoslavia, Rumania, ukrane, finland, Estonia, Latvia and luthania are
created
Emergence of ne nations with little to know experience
Many had to create them sleves and had emmence difficulty and fell into patterns of
authroitatian rule
Yugoslavia- lumped together of peace makers and later fell in to conflict as well
A legacy of breaking empires, while the overseas empires remain mostly in place
1920-1941 economic dislocation low growth, local dissatisfaction, tendency to look
for scapegoats and easy solutions
Two legacies that arrive from this way
1. Wilsonian idealism
omaking thw world safe for democracy in other words, free market and free
trade
oCreation of a league of nations
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oLoss of secret agreements and treaties that would now be known to all the
citiezens
oFailed didnt join league and the open treaty didnt happen
2. the Russian revolution 1917
* bolshevick/ communist patry comes into power
* soviet anticapitalism, livberationism
Private property was only allowed to boost economy intill 1920 while stalin came into
power
Pooling of everything that pesants owned and launching economic development that
was successful
He believed the rest of the world was against him and were biding their time to
attack him
Russia has been crushed...we have 10 years to catch up with industrial countries or
we will be crushed again, any sacrifice will be justified
Thousands of lives, 8million die as a result
Ruthless, any disloyal were charged/ executed with a purge in 2 years
Great depression
Autarchy high tarrifs and tries to be self sufficient- there was weven less economic
growth, wealth is created by trading with eachother
Economic stagnations
Revanchism/expantionism germany unhappy with peace treaty and wanted their
territories back, while Italy and japan who expand their boarders japan takes
control of china, korea
Welfare state policies EI, rights of labour unions, to some extent successful,
Soviet 5 year plans- huge economic groth and propogandic state, industrial
enterprise knew he was unpopular and announced it with the releace of
prohibition
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