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HIS330H5 Lecture Notes - Bourbon Reforms, French Revolution, Cochineal

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“Active citizen”: bourgeois, analysis through Marxism (class conflict) what he sees is the rise of
active citizen associating the active citizenry with the middle class, bourgeois revolution.
Economy in colonial terms: land owners & merchant classes; not feudal it’s an economy
characterized by trading with other Latin Americans, a rise of middle class people, how this
economy is integrated. Method: Atlantic Revolution: 18th 19th century: first French revolution,
American Revolution: revolts against tyranny, political revolutions and also industrial
revolutions; movement from people from agricultural society into an industrial one. He writes
about this book about progress. Nationalism will characterize Latin America; breaking away
from the king and creating their own independent nations. Active citizen is developing like a
nationalist economy.
Mexican Independence: internal/external factors that bring calls for independence.
18th century, late age of revolution American independence 1776, 1789 French, 1791 Haiti.
Countries in L.A is aware what’s going on in the world, why are they discontent. Bourbon
Reforms are why they are discontent.
Carlos 3rd & the Bourdon Reforms 18th century
Age of Reason:
Rationality and efficiency, applied to the government, enlighten principles to government, based
on R & E. Merchant Marine created, Monarchy starts talking about efficiency in government.
Enlightenment absolutism: scientific principles to government, no democracy government
whether or not the people like it, its on scientific method. Aim to raise revenue: mining
Cochineal, Chocolate, sale taxes & pulque. Alienate the active citizen because they had to raise
taxes to raise revenue, from the bourbons (their king). Internal factors: enlightment programs to
raise revenue.
External Factors: ideological change; political development in Spain in early 19th century,
Napoleon and his army are going around Europe spreading nationalism, take over most of
Europe. Napoleon army isn’t fighting necessarily out of feudal obligation, but for their sense of
national pride, because their French, see themselves as a distinct unit. Spread ideas of
nationalism through Europe, putting ideas into peoples head.King of Spain: Fernado the 7th is the
king 1808, Napoleon took the throne took his relative Joseph on the throne. The nobles and the
middle class, rise up and Napoleon is not the legit ruler, fernado the 7th is, call a representative
body together : Cortez: like a parliament, just Spanish nobels in Spain. L.A doesn’t represent
interest of the L.A just Spain cadiz – meets in this city 1810-1812, write a constitution:
republican based on ideals of representative democracy, human rights etc. trying to make
government responsible to the people
1812 independence movements begin in L.A, not a unified movement, by region.
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