HIS338H5 Lecture Notes - Ordnungspolizei, Evonik Industries, Reich Main Security Office

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Published on 9 Oct 2012
School
UTM
Department
History
Course
HIS338H5
Lecture 5
Two things going on: mass murders on one side and at the same time a more sanitized and
conveyor belt style of mass murder (to make it more efficient)
Nazis by 1942 had certain plan to annihilate Jews of Europe
o While one part killing, second was deportation (putting them on cattle carts and sending
them to death camps or whatever)
o Used existing rail systems to transport Jews from as far as Greece to eastern Europe
o If not enough trains available, would use trucks or have them march
Sometime in 1941 Nazis decided to implement final solution
Coordination of this was created at Wannsee Conference in Jan 1942
o Wannsee= suburban in Berlin
o Top ___ who were gonna implement this
o Man leading the conversation was Heydrich (head of RSHA)
o Eichmann (head of deportations)
o Basically SS and __ officials who came to coordinate all the different government
bureaucracies (n Poland, Soviet union etc.) to talk about deportation of 70 million Jews
(including those outside of German control)
o Main Reich security office in charge of this and SS and police will help to co-ordinate this
process
o Order police would then reinforce local police authority and help them in this process
(basically rounding up Jews)
o Ministry of Transportation to scheduling trains etc
o Foreign Ministry to inform allies of this
o First thing they talked about was resettlement -> that Jews had to be gathered in order to
be resettled
Resettled in east for slave labor/murder them
Taken away in freight trains/passenger trains
Weren't given food or water, long journeys from as far as France etc. and in
winter as well
Packed people in sealed freight cars packed with people
Many people came deathly ill/died
These humiliations carefully constructed to break their will and to have people look at
them (Jews) as filthy animals
o On one hand Nazis do this but on other, they also get locals to do this
o By Jan 1942, killing commandos have murdered 14 (?) million Jews
o Intentionalist argument: this was plan from the start, always wanted to murder Jews
o Functionalists: Jews go to Palestine, Nazis were thinking of just kicking Jews out but later
sealed them in when they thought it's possible to murder Jews
o Middle ground: there was a plan roughly drawn and later on through planning it came to
place
Prob: no signed order from Hitler so no proof that he initiated it
Heydrich and Himmler: people working towards Hitler, to impress him and did stuff to
gain ranks so could be them doing this to impress Hitler and say this is what Germany
needs to do
Before 1942 building of camps happened
o Sept 1941-July 1942: Nazis have camps in Poland
Operation Reinhard
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Named after Heydrich b/c he was leading conference and was assassinated later on so
in his honor
In Chelmno, Majdanek, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor (run by Ukrainian SS guards)
Symbol of Sobibor is man whose trial in Munich ended with him convicted of
aiding and abiding
Sobibor run by locals
Also in Auschwitz-Birkenav (largest camp but wasn't solely a camp. Was made of 3
camps, Auschwitz is camp where most were murdered 1.1-15 million Jews)
Vast majority were eradicated while some who were young healthy men were
given tattoos were forced to work to death
70 thousand (Catholics, Ukrainian, gypsies, homosexuals, resistors, political prisoners
and most Jews)
Vast majority of info from trials given from Ukrainian and political prisoners b/c there
was a hierarchy and could work (less life threatening job)
Most people they murdered were with gas first (first use of gas?)
o Jews from southern and Southeast Poland murdered in Belzec
o Jews from Warsaw and ____ were deported to Treblinka
o Jews of Woch (?) deported to …
Had Jews from Germany, Poland, France and Greece etc. so different communities
rounded up
o Northern and Western Europe Jews rounded up in transit camps
75% Jews from France, more then 65 000 of them were shipped from France to
Auschwitz
From Netherlands, also went from trains
o Southern Europe: from Greece, Italy, Croatia
43 000 from Greece and were generally murdered immediately on arrival at camp b/c
Germans nervous with Soviets coming
Deported 8000 Jews mostly to Auschwitz
Allies with Croatia, and deported Jews
Some countries like Bulgaria (who had long history of Anti-Semitism) refused
deportation of Jews
o Central Europe: from Germany, Austria and Bohemia etc. in Aug of 1941, before
extermination camps set up in Poland
Deported to ghettos
Nov-Dec 1941 40000 Jews deported to ghettos in Lithuania, Soviet and Latvia (former
Soviet areas taken over by Germany which Germans brought native Jews to and later
brought more)
o Treblinka doesn't have long life b/c Soviet approach n 1942 so Germans shut down
operations there and plowed it to ground
Murder 90 000 Jews and then remove any signs of murder
Treblinka is now a memorial site which is different from Auschwitz b/c Germans got
rid of all signs of it
o 1942-32 most get murdered
o Summer 1944 gas chambers running at speed like they haven't run before and 10 000 Jews
getting murdered each day from Jews from Hungary
1944 when they've long lost war, lost Italy, Warsaw etc and still running gas machines
440 000 Hungarian Jews murdered
Warsaw ghetto: where place were compliant and resist
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Document Summary

Two things going on: mass murders on one side and at the same time a more sanitized and conveyor belt style of mass murder (to make it more efficient) If not enough trains available, would use trucks or have them march. Sometime in 1941 nazis decided to implement final solution. Resettled in east for slave labor/murder them. Weren"t given food or water, long journeys from as far as france etc. and in winter as well. Packed people in sealed freight cars packed with people. Prob: no signed order from hitler so no proof that he initiated it. Heydrich and himmler: people working towards hitler, to impress him and did stuff to gain ranks so could be them doing this to impress hitler and say this is what germany needs to do. Before 1942 building of camps happened: sept 1941-july 1942: nazis have camps in poland.

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