October 4, 2012
History: Lecture 4
Jamestown is still important.
Acadia loses importance.
The Inca “Land of the Four Quarters”
- Andes mountains
- Inca gold llama
- Greatest accomplishments were figuring out how to live.
- They were important because of their possession of precious metals.
- Sapa Inca/Inca, Quechua, Andean
- Lived in Cuzco Valley, Peru area
- Quick and sweeping rise to empire
- Within 100 years of survival, became largest state in Columbia
- Population was 6-12 million (around 10-12 million according to researchers)
- Cuzco, biggest city in empire, was more than 3000 feet higher than sea level.
- Very cold, frequent snow and frost
- Rainfall, highly erratic
- Altitude sickness: high altitude
- Middle of high mountains
- Communication system: paved roads (Over 40,000 kilometers of paved roads)
- In caves, bridges, etc.
- Food stores and outposts for survival.
- Runners kilometer away from each other. Ran a kilometer and gave message to
- Used quipu (knotted strings) with message encoded, or memorized
- Process of resettlement was called mitima
- Local leaders invited to pay homage to Inca
- Empire grew through invitation.
- Cuzco most important: in the middle of four cities (they believed it was the center
of the universe)
- Many buildings still survive today.
- Chief structure: enormous temple (Temple of the Sun)
- Temple of the Sun: Covered in plated sheets of gold (temple to Sun god)
- Quinoa, maize (lower altitudes), chichi, llamas, potato,
- Maize: form of beer or transported up. (Grew in lower altitudes)
- Terraced fields to grow potatoes (most important crop)
- Taclla: fertilization system
- Chuño: Dried potato (still contains most nutrient content)
Used to feed officials and as emergency stockpile.
- Mita: tribute in the form of work.
- Every adult was expected to contribute labor to the state.
- Shear livestock, fight in military, textiles, weave cloth, farming, etc. October 4, 2012
- Harvesting of crops also important to mita.
- Food was a safety net for emergencies like sick people, starvation, etc.
- Resentment fostered because of it, but it provided safety.
- Spanish invasion in
- Huayna Cápac was Inca leader
- Francisco Pizarro was Spanish leader
Made several expeditions
At first he failed, but he succeeded in gathering info about Inca political
Social strife was beginning to affect Inca
Inca leader died from disease (possibly smallpox) and didn’t leave a
Struggle between sons of leader
Pizarro came in at the end of struggle.
Atahualpa was disliked by many
He underestimated Spanish and misunderstood Spanish technology and
Atahualpa talked to Pizarro by himself and left army outside.
Spanish tried to convert him, he examined Bible and threw it on the
Spanish started to attack people and captured Atahualpa.
Inca offered gold and silver to Spanish in order to get their leader back.
11,000 tons of gold and silver, which Spanish melted
Atahualpa executed anyways.
Potosi land: tons of gold and silver (60% of precious metls came from
Mercury found in Huancavelica (Spanish set up and lived well)
Huancavelica: Spanish settlement had schools, good living situation.
Mining mercury was bad conditions.
6-month lifetime for mercury miners (Inca).