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Lecture 4

HIS101 Lecture 4 - October 4, 2012

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Mairi Cowan

October 4, 2012 History: Lecture 4 Jamestown is still important. Acadia loses importance. The Inca “Land of the Four Quarters” - Andes mountains - Inca gold llama - Greatest accomplishments were figuring out how to live. - They were important because of their possession of precious metals. - Sapa Inca/Inca, Quechua, Andean  Andean: regional  Quechua:  Inca: Ruler - Lived in Cuzco Valley, Peru area - Quick and sweeping rise to empire - Within 100 years of survival, became largest state in Columbia - Population was 6-12 million (around 10-12 million according to researchers) - Cuzco, biggest city in empire, was more than 3000 feet higher than sea level. - Very cold, frequent snow and frost - Rainfall, highly erratic - Altitude sickness: high altitude - Middle of high mountains - Communication system: paved roads (Over 40,000 kilometers of paved roads) - In caves, bridges, etc. - Food stores and outposts for survival. - Runners kilometer away from each other. Ran a kilometer and gave message to next messenger. - Used quipu (knotted strings) with message encoded, or memorized - Process of resettlement was called mitima - Local leaders invited to pay homage to Inca - Empire grew through invitation. - Cuzco most important: in the middle of four cities (they believed it was the center of the universe) - Many buildings still survive today. - Chief structure: enormous temple (Temple of the Sun) - Temple of the Sun: Covered in plated sheets of gold (temple to Sun god) - Quinoa, maize (lower altitudes), chichi, llamas, potato, - Maize: form of beer or transported up. (Grew in lower altitudes) - Terraced fields to grow potatoes (most important crop) - Taclla: fertilization system - Chuño: Dried potato (still contains most nutrient content)  Used to feed officials and as emergency stockpile. - Mita: tribute in the form of work. - Every adult was expected to contribute labor to the state. - Shear livestock, fight in military, textiles, weave cloth, farming, etc. October 4, 2012 - Harvesting of crops also important to mita. - Food was a safety net for emergencies like sick people, starvation, etc. - Resentment fostered because of it, but it provided safety. - Spanish invasion in - Huayna Cápac was Inca leader - Francisco Pizarro was Spanish leader  Made several expeditions  At first he failed, but he succeeded in gathering info about Inca political system  Social strife was beginning to affect Inca  Inca leader died from disease (possibly smallpox) and didn’t leave a specific heir  Struggle between sons of leader  Pizarro came in at the end of struggle.  Atahualpa was disliked by many  He underestimated Spanish and misunderstood Spanish technology and tactics.  Atahualpa talked to Pizarro by himself and left army outside.  Spanish tried to convert him, he examined Bible and threw it on the ground.  Spanish started to attack people and captured Atahualpa.  Inca offered gold and silver to Spanish in order to get their leader back.  11,000 tons of gold and silver, which Spanish melted  Atahualpa executed anyways.  Potosi land: tons of gold and silver (60% of precious metls came from Potosi)  Mercury found in Huancavelica (Spanish set up and lived well)  Huancavelica: Spanish settlement had schools, good living situation.  Mining mercury was bad conditions.  6-month lifetime for mercury miners (Inca).
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