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Lecture 5

HIS101 Lecture 5 - October 11, 2012
HIS101 Lecture 5 - October 11, 2012

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Mairi Cowan

October 11, 2012 History: Lecture 5 The Idea of the Atlantic World - People come into sustained contact: history of the Atlantic world - No real info on when people came into Atlantic - There is first historical evidence of trans-Atlantic crossing - Europeans most likely had greatest interest in getting to Atlantic - If they could find a sea route, it would be cheaper. - They faced challenges like currents and winds - Columbus figured out if you go South of Europe, currents will bring you across the Atlantic. - Norse, Viking peoples were the first to cross the Atlantic from Europe (Scandinavia) - Vikings were the prelude to sustained contact across the Atlantic - Vikings left Europe and sailed west b/c - Rise in temperature led to increase in Europe. - More people pushed pressure on the land - Therefore, Vikings left Europe to find more land to live in - They traveled south and east, north and west as well - Travelled all the way to Newfoundland - Sagas (long epic poems, mythological in character) were how we figured out about Viking travels - Oral tradition first written down. - Stories from sagas said Eriksson went to Iceland but got into fight and was banished and then went to explore Greenland. He then decided to go to the West. Leif Eriksson, his son, decided to go to the --- - Leif Eriksson found good land with a lot of resources. Rivers with fish, good land for farming, etc. - In 1960, Helge Ingstad and Anne Stine found a Viking settlement in North America - Population was 70-90 individuals (both men and women) - Did not set up sustainable colony. - Weigh station so they could further travel to West so they could get resources and bring them to Scandinavia - No livestock or farming lands (evidence of this) - No idea where Vikings went - There are still plant remains, details in sagas, are evidence that there are other Viking sites Anachronism - Something taken out of its proper chronological order and inconsistency in chronological arrangement. - Norse did not create contact throughout Atlantic - No contact throughout Atlantic for hundreds of years October 11, 2012 Hispaniola from Arawaks to the Haitian Revolution - A lot of trauma, dislocation and violence - What happened there happened in a lot of the Atlantic - Severe collapse of native peoples - From richest country in the world to the poorest in the western hemisphere - Hispaniola inhabited by Taino - Taino were one group from larger group called Arawaks (united by language) - Not many sources on Arawaks - Taino lived in tiny villages (1000-2000 peoples) - Political system: alliances between groups of settlements - Hereditary chiefs - Crops included manioc (cassava bread), peanuts, sweet potatoses, - Mobile: moved around in large canoes that could carry amny people - Tainos first to meet Christopher Columbus - Spanish view of contact (picture in textbook of Taino and Spanish) - Taino called island Ayiti but Columbus called it La Española - Left group of people - Taino chief said Caribs (another group of indigenous peoples) who were more violent and strong - After Caribs, land called Caribbean - Caribs captured people and ate them b/c of rituals - The Taino didn’t fare well after the contact with Columbus - Their land was rich with sources: spices, gold, metals - Easy for Spanish to exploit - They had no weapons. - Columbus assumed that the Taino people wanted them to take all the resources from their land - Many cultures liked gift-giving (Tainos?) - Columbus probably portrayed Taino as wealthy and generous - Columbus was famously wrong about certain things  Not wrong about the shape of the earth but wrong about the size  Also wrong about what he found (thought he landed in Asia)  Didn’t know he reached a new hemisphere - Taino weren’t willing to give all their resources to the Spanish - Spanish implemented the Encomienda system: Spanish settlers given Taino people’s labour to get resources. (BRUTAL) - Spanish were supposed to protect Taino in return for labour + resources
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