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Lecture 6

HIS101 Lecture 6 - October 18, 2012

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Mairi Cowan

October 18, 2012 History: Lecture 6 The Middle East and Central Asia Introduction to the Middle East The Middle East is not a specially designed area Countries that have a majority Muslim population today Other countries that do have a Muslim population like Bali and Indonesia doesn‟t seem to be included Since WWII, the name “Middle East” has become the official name. Today, the Middle East is filled with a lot of strife The Middle East has the oldest history. They created the first form of written language from Sumerians Sumerians invented writing in Mesopotamia Mesopotamia wasn‟t the only place in the world where writing was invented China, Indus valley, Mesoamerica and Egypt are other independent centers for the invention of writing. Mesopotamia retains the honor of the first human culture to invent writing. The invention of agriculture also developed in middle East Along with the invention of towns Town: any human settlement where the majority of the population is engrossed in something other than just growing food. Catal Huyuk (c. 7,500-5,700 B.C.E) - Estimated to have around 5,000 people - All houses are the same size, same materials, etc. - No external defenses: therefore, assumption hat they didn‟t have to defend themselves from anything - However, houses are pretty well fortified - Door was probably on roof or second floor - No public squares or wide streets Middle East from Medieval historical point of view A Technology that Changed the World The domestication of horses happened around 5,000 years ago on the Eurasian step Eurasian step had a lot of plain lands Horses were used to pull people on platforms (wagons, chariots) Not really used to ride When horses were used for riding, the technology that facilitated this innovation was the stirrup The stirrups were made from biodegradable materials like leather or wood The stirrup is an effective technology because it distributes rider‟s weight equally on horse‟s back, it gives better balance for user so they can do things like shoot a bow and arrow. October 18, 2012 It was so valuable it spread far and wide Stirrup arrived in Central Asia and in Europe Arrived in Europe around 1700, and skill on horseback became a very important skill to have. Knights and chivalry The most famous horseman of the world was the Mongols (CHINA) They ate horse meat and drank kumiss (fermented mare‟s milk) They had quick mobility and could shoot their arrows with precision They could also reload their bows very quickly The stirrups helped open up a gate for trade Helped open up the Silk Road which was a vast amount of roads that led to many places Silk road opened up a vast array of cultures Items came from many many places thanks to the Silk roa
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