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Lecture November 27, 2012.docx

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Mairi Cowan

November 27, 2012 – Intro to EU History Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821 - FR brought with it war and militarization, glorification of military values - Saw himself as liberator of EU o But he was a conqueror - Rise to power was centrally connected to values of Enlightenment and FR - Born in Corsica in 1769, family was minor Italian nobility, grew up remote from French powers but studied in various French schools and went to a French military school - 1785 was a lieutenant and not liked by many officers - Spent many years reading for enlightenment and educated himself in military matters and studying military campaigns from the past; Alexander the Great - Rose very quickly in military rank - 1792, Captain, 1795 Major General, 1796 commander of French Army in Italy o Speed of his rise and accomplished this in his 20’s o Surprisingly military victories - Given command 1797 of army invading England, but he recommended strike against Britain indirectly, go to Egypt, cut off connections with India, o On land he was doing well but on sea he failed at Battle of Nile 1798 by Haratio Nelson o Meant Britan still in control of the sea o Napoleon had to return to Paris - While Napoleon was in Egypt he discovered a black slab, the Rosetta Stone o Ancient text written in 3 languages, the world had forgotten how to read hieroglyphics o Allowed scholars to piece together writing for the first time in 1400 years - Napoleon was still most successful and most qualified to put an end to French republic o French wars were going badly, revolts, generals acting independently from orders, French troops increasingly disloyal o With his return from Egypt he joined a coup-de ta and declared himself the First Consul  Drafted a new constitution  Tremendous amount of power  Ability to combine ideals of liberty and order  Used plebiscites to make decisions o Gave decisions a look of democracy, didn’t really show popular support, people who did vote voted under considerable pressure - Napoleon elevated to emperor, crowned himself emperor  Pope usually does this and has power to uncrown him so he simply just crowned himself - Fan of artwork to show his greatness - His personnel were well trained and salaried and looked modern - On the surface it looked like a meritocracy but it wasn’t he chose the most able, mixture of those able to rise up through merit and those from old regime France that he asked to return to France - There was conscription to army, repair to roads, public finance, Bank of France established, revenue collection improved - Created new aristocracy based on merit and state service - 60% from new aristocrats from bourgeois in France, owed a lot to Napoleon - Civil Code 1804 renamed Napoleonic Code 1806 o Very closely involved, gave the code his final approval o Exported from France to many other places in EU, most important legal document in modern history  Belgium, Italy, Poland, Germany o Civil Code of Quebec resembles this o Revolutionary ideals, equality for all citizens, right to choose own profession, religious toleration, property rights and labour protected interests of employers, and family law; internal authority and subordination of women; now divorce still permitted but a new double standard on how to achieve; women cheating could be imprisoned but a man didn’t have to, when women married property under control of husband, married women couldn’t sell property, run business or have profession without authority from husband, fathers had sole right to consent to children’s marriage and i
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