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Lecture September 18, 2012.docx

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Mairi Cowan

September 18, 2012- Introduction to European History Famine, War, Plague - 14thC, comes after demographic peak The Great Famine (1311-1322) - As early as 1311 to 1322, worst years 1315-1317 - Climate change showed a lot about what was going on o Medieval warming period helped raised population o 1300 sharp drop in temperature, called the ‘little ice age’  Can no longer group as much food as before  Several years cooler, accompanied my abnormally high rain and cold winters  Dendrochronology, study of time using tree rings, confirms these trends, about the cooling  Also know about this cooling from written reports about the cooling o Later 13thC EU population putting a lot of pressure on land, using all the land they could find, the crops began to fail  In some regions, production fell 80%  And food quality not as good  A lot of soils were losing their fertility o Heavy rains and cooler weather o The heavy rains washed out roads and bridges, disrupting communication o Warfare in EU brought further disruptions in communication - Effects: grain shortages and price to rise. Most people consumed mostly grain, staple crop o Killed off a lot of livestock. Fewer livestock meant less animal power for farming - 10-15% of the population died from starvation or infections from malnutrition - Many people could get by the first year from food they stored, the second year brought a lot of death War - Most famous and significant war, The Hundred Years war between England and France 1337- 1453 - 2 possible causes: fought over English holding land in France, or who has right to be King of France - Divided into 4 phases: o 1337-1360 English King took advantage of force o 1369-1396 No real advantage to either force o 1415-1420 Fondly remembered, English had dazzling victories, Battle of Agincourt  French side:  English had great archers, 13 000, very effective  Knights on horses on French side in panic  Horses getting hit with arrows, whole army thrown into disorder, caused more panic and knights fled  The English slaughtered the knights, not interested in taking prisoners  English King said any prisoners kept should be killed, instant massacre  English side:  Archers played pivotal role in their win  They say it’s God’s plan that they won the war o 1422-1453 (fourth phase) Famous leader Joan of Arc 1412-1431  Claims to have heard voices from God  Met with some successes, broke an England siege, brought French troop supplies  Went to Compiegne, did not do so well, she was captured and tried as a heretic  At first she denied any voices at all, then she later said yes and then at the end she was convicted and executed  She wore male clothing, and even in prison, that’s one of the main reasons she was executed o Claimed the guards tried to rape her  In spite of the capture of Joan of Arc, English forces continued to fall, in the end, France considered victorious Infantry Revolution - Battle of Poitiers 1356 - Development of better longbows - Horses caused a fortune, but these men who were archerer’s used cheap horses and little to no armour - IR Changed tactics on battlefield - Siege of Tournai 1340 o Army besieging the town had double the salary than the revenue of the English crown o Siege of warfare way too expensive - Jousting Plague (1347-1352) “The Black Death” - Origins: o October 1347, arrives from trading ships coming from the East, Asia o It was highly contagious, those on board al
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