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Lecture October 9, 2012.docx
Lecture October 9, 2012.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Mairi Cowan

October 9, 2012- Introduction to European History Reformations The Council of Constance 1414-1418 - Called to end the great schism where there were 3 popes claiming authority - Put their own authority above the Pope - Looking to defend orthodox Catholicism o Met at limited success - Language of reform o “for the peace, exaltation, and the reformation of the Church” - Not the first or only catholic call for reform o Ex. Gregorian reform o Development of Dominican and Franciscan Friars movement o Devotio moderna - Before the reformation, dominant practice is Catholic o 1560, no longer dominant Catholic The trigger: The Lutheran Reformation - Dispute over the selling of indulgences - St Peter’s Basilicia building money came in through the selling of indulgences o In return of paying money, avoidance in time in purgatory, some of church’s penalty for sin is taken away, not a ticket to heaven and won’t take you out of hell o A lot of people believed buying an indulgence meant buying a ticket to heave - Albrecht from Germany sold these indulgences, per mitted to use some revenue for himself, to pay off his debts - Martin Luther 1483-1546 o Can into contact with Johann Tetzel who was selling the indulgences on the street and didn’t agree o Luther presented a letter to Albrecht called “95 Theses” on indulgences 1517 o Doesn’t nail 95 Theses to door or start a reformation o Was an accidental reformist o Never criticizes theory behind indulgences o Worried Christians aren’t being good Christians o Criticizing making the indulgences a higher authority o University of Wittenberg o Luther didn’t want to publish these theses but his friends did and it spread o He didn’t want to start a reformation o Freedom of a Christian 1520  Sola scriptura; by scripture alone  Only need the word of God and the gospel of God  Sola fide; by faith alone  Only thing necessary is faith, not what you do but what you believe  Priesthood of all believers  Clergy should be respect for their learning and no more be honoured for their spirituality because in a sense we’re all clergy  There is contradiction; a person has a two fold nature; spirit and bodily, no external thing can influence spiritual nature, cannot have an effect on freedom, our spiritual nature has to inhabit a body, in our to free our nature, we need to discipline our body, lead a mortal life on earth and live a material life, must allow spirit to become a good Christian, works help justify the spirit  Great importance on the Bible, especially letters of Paul and his interpretation of the teachings of Jesus, Gospel  Luther and his followers moved away from traditional Catholicism Calvinist Reformation - John Calvin 1509-1564 second generation reformer, for some most important reformer - Institutes of the Christian Religion 1526? o Introductory manuel for Christian faith and practice o Allow beginniners to read Bible correctly o Summary of basic Christian teaching o Regarded this as a statement of his teaching o Exert we read on predestination  Whether we are predestined on a certain kind of life  Faith is predetermined before you were born  Nothing an individual can do about it  Some people believed only saints were going to be saved and vast majority just going to live on with their lives  Calvin established double predestination, destined to be saved or to be damned, nothing can influence a soul’s destiny o Center of reformation was city of Geneva 1550  Laws governing sexual behaviour  Consistory; a church court, main area of discipline  Seemed most concerned about people carrying on old Catholic practices  Bulk of it was marriage; if people promised to marry but didn’t, one person could bring it to
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