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HIS230H5 (27)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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Mairi Cowan

The Great Famine  Dendrochronology o Study of tree through their rings  When the climate changed it heavily affected farmers, a small climate change can ruin crops  Soils were losing their fertility after intensive farming  War turned a production crisis into a distribution crisis  During the great famine 10-15% of the population died  Some people sold land, some people migrated, but the population was weakened as a whole War  The hundred years war o 1337-1453 o Not continuous, multiple wars o Possible causes might be English holding lands in France (feudal) or the legitimacy of the crown o First Phase (1337-1360) o Second Phase (1369-1396) o Third War (1415-1420) o Battle of Agincourt 1415 o Fourth Phase (1429-1453)  Joan of Arc (1412-1431)  “la Pucelle”  Dauphin  Orleans  Compiegne  She broke an English siege and restored French morale  After being captured after a bad siege and tried by the English  The legal reason she was tried for was wearing male clothing, even in prison  Burned at the stake o Infantry revolution  In short, the infantry revolution is used to describe when archers and pike men are able to cause heavy casualties to Calvary  This change who was on the battlefield, and who should be on the battlefield  Warriors were the aristocracy in Europe, and were responsible for war  Pikemen and archers were from the lower classes  A war horse’s cost the same as the income for a family for 80 years o Siege of Tournai, 1340  The army consisted of 23k men  Seige warfare was extremely expensive  The salaries costed double the annual revenue of the English Crown o Jousting and events became more prominent after archers and pikemen became more effective o The code of chivalry is changed as this happened o The upper class tried to gain power in alternative ways once they realized that they were losing power on the battlefield Plague  “The Black Death” – first used in the 16 century, popularized in the 19  Yersinia pestis (after Alexandre Yersin) o May have come from the east, Hong Kong, brought by sailors o According to this theory a rat carries the disease, which is carried by a flea to a human  Bubonic (from buboes) o Some symptoms were a fever, splitting headache, lymph nodes, with death following soon after o Painful, felt like getting hit by an arrow  Septicaemic
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