January 20, 2014
Robert Walpole, Prime Minister (1721 – 1742):
-from Norfolk, served as queen Anne’s secretary of war.
-giving positions and jobs to people he can control in government.
-has about 12,000 people working for him.
-“corrupting the party”, criticized by other politicians.
-people who Walpole control in government: old core, or back benchers.
-will work anyone as long as they support his initiatives.
-“first, modern” politician.
-able to convince the public:
-the whig party is the party of order.
-puts together a spy system that roots out Jacobites.
-makes all the tories out to be complete Jacobites.
-convinced the king and the people.
-solidifies the place whig party has as the predominant party.
-he embraces tories’ political agendas when it was popular.
-Whigs are the predominant party because:
-the anti-hannevarian riots.
-the Jacobite plotting.
-the genius of Walpole.
-Whigs: from party of revolution to party of order.
-passed septennial act:
-parliaments can now meet for 7 years (parties now sit in power for 7 years without a
-fewer elections = fewer chance of change. -less accountability.
-the black act:
-deer poaching, cutting down young trees, lurking in the woods with your face painted
black is punishable by death.
-Whigs are trying to create an absolutist state under Walpole.
Printing Press… Agent of Change:
-Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The printing press as an agent of change & The Printing Revolution in
Early Modern Europe.
-new technology of the printing press fundamentally people’s orientation and attitude toward
-without the printing press, the scientific revolution, etc. would not have happened.
-2/3 of people in England were literate by the 1760.
-as a result of the printing press, new forms of socialbility was formed.
-earliest coffee houses began in the 1680’s.
-exclusion crisis (1680’s), political crisis.
-by the early 18 century, the whigs and tories have their own coffee houses.
-globalization and colonization (coffee was grown in Ethiopia)
-british got their coffee from the East Indian company
-the French didn’t have coffee houses, they had salons (big country houses or
mansions) that were closed off to anyone but the aristocracy.
-the English have the coffee houses more open for the public.
-Whigs centered at King’s head tavern.
-different clubs began to develop.
-new clubs were formed. -scribelrus club (Tory club).
-Jonathan Swift, John Gay, Bowling Brook, etc.
-made up of mostly writers.
-make up Tory propaganda, satirize the whigs and Walpole.
-kit kat club (Whig club).
-name comes from Christopher Kadling.
-has all the important Whig writers.
-until about 1650, people saw the universe as unchanged.
-Jerusalem was at the centre of the Earth (where Jesus was born).
-by about 400 AD, it was widely believed that every single living being