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January 20, 2014 Robert Walpole, Prime Minister (1721 – 1742): -from Norfolk, served as queen Anne’s secretary of war. -giving positions and jobs to people he can control in government. -has about 12,000 people working for him. -“corrupting the party”, criticized by other politicians. -people who Walpole control in government: old core, or back benchers. -will work anyone as long as they support his initiatives. -“first, modern” politician. -able to convince the public: -the whig party is the party of order. -puts together a spy system that roots out Jacobites. -makes all the tories out to be complete Jacobites. -convinced the king and the people. -solidifies the place whig party has as the predominant party. -he embraces tories’ political agendas when it was popular. -Whigs are the predominant party because: -the anti-hannevarian riots. -the Jacobite plotting. -the genius of Walpole. -Whigs: from party of revolution to party of order. Whigs: -passed septennial act: -parliaments can now meet for 7 years (parties now sit in power for 7 years without a general elections). -fewer elections = fewer chance of change. -less accountability. -the black act: -deer poaching, cutting down young trees, lurking in the woods with your face painted black is punishable by death. -Whigs are trying to create an absolutist state under Walpole. Printing Press… Agent of Change: -Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The printing press as an agent of change & The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. -new technology of the printing press fundamentally people’s orientation and attitude toward knowledge. -without the printing press, the scientific revolution, etc. would not have happened. -2/3 of people in England were literate by the 1760. -as a result of the printing press, new forms of socialbility was formed. -coffee houses. -earliest coffee houses began in the 1680’s. -exclusion crisis (1680’s), political crisis. -by the early 18 century, the whigs and tories have their own coffee houses. -globalization and colonization (coffee was grown in Ethiopia) -british got their coffee from the East Indian company -the French didn’t have coffee houses, they had salons (big country houses or mansions) that were closed off to anyone but the aristocracy. -the English have the coffee houses more open for the public. -Whigs centered at King’s head tavern. -different clubs began to develop. Coffeehouse Culture: -new clubs were formed. -scribelrus club (Tory club). -Jonathan Swift, John Gay, Bowling Brook, etc. -made up of mostly writers. -make up Tory propaganda, satirize the whigs and Walpole. -kit kat club (Whig club). -name comes from Christopher Kadling. -has all the important Whig writers. Scientific Revolution: -until about 1650, people saw the universe as unchanged. -Jerusalem was at the centre of the Earth (where Jesus was born). -by about 400 AD, it was widely believed that every single living being
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