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February 10.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga

February 10, 2014 HIS 236 Horrors of Industrialization -child labor (less pay) -people worked around dangerous machines -long work hours (no unions and no standards) -dirty working conditions -if you had an injury, you got fired -employers considered their workers “hands” -they are called “hands” because they “don’t exist”; they are there only for the labor -Elizabeth Gasco, North and South -profound social inequality -fundamentally changes the class structure in England and throughout Europe because of industrialization -people’s identities are based on the work that they do -people who own the means of production (machines) -people who sold their labor for a wage Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) -critiques capitalist societies -in 1843, gets a job as a journalist and gets fired for speaking out against the government, kicked out of Prussia -goes to France, read Utopian literature -Brave New World is dystopian -exposed to really radical ideas of Utopian socialist -application of science for the improvement of the human condition -“worker communities”, workers living in complete equality -abolition of “private” property (this property creates the division of socialist classes) -can justice exist in a society that is defined in its very core social inequality -writes articles that are critical against the French government, gets kicked out -befriends Ingles -Ingles and parents own a factory in Manchester -Karl Marx goes at the very beginning of the industrial revolution -a society where everyone hates their life, alcoholism becomes rampant -observations: -capitalism and industrialization is but one stage in world history -goes against capitalism -capitalism: based on greed, greed produces public benefits -mode of production based on the unequal means of production -under capitalists (bugoueis): owns the machinery, the land, factories, oil wells, corporations -accumulate profit based on the labor of men -Marx: bougouise is stealing the labor of the working class, not right -applies George Hegel’s ideas -dialectical stages of the development of ideas -Hegel is a philosopher, interested in the development of ideas -ideas in motion: each age is characterized by a dominate set of ideas. After a while, this set of ideas produces an opposing set of ideas. The notion of the thesis and antithesis -thesis and antithesis are locked in this struggle until new ideas are produced, a synthesis (which becomes the thesis), which creates another antithesis, and so on -you can map out ideas in human history, a science of human history -history has a pattern and a purpose -Marx: history is nothing more than class struggle French Revolution: -fundamental significance to Marx -first great revolution -Marx sees the revolution as the overthrow of the old society -Thesis: middle ages feudalism produced antithesis: rising middle class/revolution/overthrowing the old regime -synthesis: middle class society/industrialization produced a
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