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University of Toronto Mississauga

January 6, 2014 HIS 236: British History Dr. Petrokas Office: 297 NE [email protected] 17 century – Present day. Christopher Hill: Century of Revolution, 1603 – 1689 -in 1603, England wasn’t anywhere people wanted to be. -in 1689, England was a place people would comfortably live (with constitution, government, individual rights, religious toleration). -2 violent social and political revolution -English revolution - 1602-1649 (1649: Charles I gets executed, judged by his parliament and court of law to be a traitor. He broke England’s constitution [first king to be executed in this way]) -Glorious revolution – 1688-1689 (James II flees from England, overthrown by parliament) -The great conflict: Constitutionalism vs. Absolutism -“Constitutionalism”: a government where the law is the highest power, not the arbitrary whim of the king. -“Absolutism”: a government run by a divine right monarch – a monarch not accountable to the law. (power resides in the hands of the ruler; they get power from God alone; they are responsible to God, not the people; they rely on the noble classes. Might call it tyranny) -Kings vs parliamentary classes th -Political Ideologies of the 17 century -Parliamentarian slogan: “liberty and Protestantism.” The ancient constitution protects their liberty. Political authority resides in parliament. (the law predates the king, therefore the king cannot arbitrarily change the law) -Supporters of King: “popery and arbitrary government.” (ascribed to them by their opposers) This is the opposite of the A/C and (parl) rule. -England as we know it is mainly due to the protestant revolution. -1534: England first state to become officially protestant. -Parliamentarian classes enjoy Protestantism. -17 century: Roman Catholicism was believed to completely roll out or destroy Protestantism. -What is arbitrary government? A government where the king’s whim (arbitrary whim) is law. Wipes out the historic, ancient power of parliament. -What is “popery”? Following roman Catholicism. Imposing this “alien” religion on the English people. -“Free” and protestant or absolute and Catholic? -popery was horrifying, afraid of satanic darkness. (Parliamentarians see Catholicism as satanic darkness) -Charles I r. 1625-1649. Assault on parliament -takes subsidies (taxes, property) from parliament for war but fails to go to war. -imprisons English subjects without cause. (absolutism) -puts soldiers in people’s houses. -promotes the duke of Buckingham (a nobody) to admiral of the Navy with no naval experience. -11 years tyranny, rules without parliament. (1629-1620) -imposes new religion on English and Scottish people (looks exactly like roman Catholicism) -english and Scottish people rise up against him and in 1649 he is beheaded. -Oliver Cromwell and the creation of a Republic 1649 – 1660, Restoration, 1660, Charles II -Oliver: bringing back the power of the parliament. -Cromwell tries to purify English church, the English people aren’t too excited. -King comes back; Republic did not work out. Charles II becomes king (1660 – 1685, development of political parties) -James II 1685 – 1689 -Toleration for Catholics (unacceptable to parliamentary classes) -makes Catholics army generals (problematic: enemies are Catholic, what is preventing these catholic general from turning against th
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