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January 27.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga

January 27, 2014 HIS 236 Art as a Reflection of Society, Contemporary Culture Tom Hanks, Captain Philips -pirates taking over Philips’ ship -Plato, ship metaphor -ship is a metaphor for the state -movie is a commentary on globalization -some people have more stuff than others -one ship has a lot of cargo (Philips’ ship) -another ship is poor (Somali) -the polarizations of the world, one poor and one rich -director making comparisons between Hanks and the Somali pirate Muse -both have families -both have jobs, both are trying to make it in the world -hijacking (makes people think of terrorism), resonates with society -a commercial for the power of the American Navy (or military) -the Americans say that they are fighting to protect the lives and freedom on the high seas -but are they? -it seems that they are protecting a global system that keeps people poor -movie ends on an ambiguous note -captain Philips is saved -what justice was accomplished? Daniel Defoe -living across the revolutionary divide -writing before the Glorious Revolution and into the Hanoverian Succession -England was on the road to a super power -Robinson Crusoe was written in a specific context Aristotle -man is, by nature, an animal Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626) The New Organon (1620) -wrote the book on the inductive method -based on experimentation and observation -theories of knowledge, epistemology -says that the ancient knowledge was not very good, the ancients were wrong -calls into question the wisdom of the ancients -The New Organon -the first Organon was written by Aristotle -a book on how to get answers of truth -in order to know anything, must experiment with nature -questioning nature Bacon and the Advancement of Learning -“Printing, Gun Powder, the Magnet,” the three greatest inventions in modern history -“a true proficiency in liberal learning softens and humanizes the manners” -we can feel more deeply when we know more -“so this excellent liquor of knowledge, whether it descend from divine inspiration or spring from human sense, would soon perish and vanish into oblivion if it were not preserved in books tradition and conferences, and especially in places appointed for such matters as universities.” -“If a man endeavor to establish and extend the power and dominion of the human race itself over the universe, his ambition is without doubt both a more wholesome thing and more noble. The empire of man over things depends wholly on the arts and sciences. Fore we cannot command nature except by obeying her.” Linking The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment to the Industrial Revolution MOKYR – “Enlightened Economy” -the industrial revolution is the direct result of political and intellectual factors such as the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment. Develops the thesis of “Industrial Enlightenment” -I/E is part of the Enlightenment that believes in material progress and economic growth can be achieved by increasing human knowledge -research should be directed to solving practical solvable problems; people should have access to info in the form of scientific journals, reports, and books Useful Knowledge -Baconian program: “useful knowledge” -cumulative: bodies of knowledge created that people have access to -consensual: knowledge is made tighter and there exists criteria to assess competing hypotheses or claims of knowledge -contestability: no sacred cows (no biases, be completely objective), nothing is taken on authority (like the ancients) -the development of the I/R in England was the direct result of ideas of the Baconian program -“guided by rationality and efficiency” as well as progress -scientific societies develop -scientific journals develop and proliferate knowledge -people establish intellectual property rights -the industrial enlightenment represents the utopian belief in a more comfortable and secure world thanks to the increase of useful knowledge -quite specific in its recipe as to how such a world was to be achieved, namely through the sp
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