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Glorious Revolution – winners and losers Losers: -James II -James threw the seal of England into the Thames river, whigs used this as evidence and context of James abdicating his throne and just leaving England -James goes to France, just outside of Paris -Meets with Louis XIV -Followers of James still in England: Jacobites (they do not accept the revolution settlement, believe James is the rightful king, hereditary succession must be protected at all costs) -Jacobites try to overthrow William III and Mary II *(William and Mary have a tenuous [not strong] claim to the throne. William is Dutch [not an Englishman]. James is still alive, and he also has a son.) -Church of England bishops, non-jurors -non-jurors usually clergy or bishops in the Church of England who refused to take new oaths to William and Mary. They say their oaths to James II were still in effect. -They break away from Church of England and start their own non-juring Church -The Tories = “royalists” -a historian claimed that all tories were jacobites -The Irish Winners: -Scottish (sort of) -Whigs = “parliamentarians” -natural supporters of the revolution -natural supporters of William and Mary -ideas of human right, idea that the government exists to protect people’s life and property Battle of the Boyne July 1690 (Irish were Catholic) -The irish become a launch pad for James II to rebel and regain his throne (Irish were Catholic, therefore James think they will be friendly) -James land at Kinsale with assistance from the French -Whigs worst nightmare -James with support of the French -James trying to rally supporters from Catholic Ireland -James saying that original Irish lands would be returned to them if they help him -2,500 english plantations were seized by the Irish (supposedly were stolen from the Irish) -1690 summer, William takes full command of navy and lands in Ireland with 30,000 troops to take on James -July 1 1690, English troops completely beat out the Irish (Battle of the Boyne) -Cromwell’s time: he committed massacres against the Irish -Battle of the Boyne is another massacre against the Irish -the Irish population was reduced to a state of misery -Irish were treated like a colony -Penal code: -No Catholic voting -no office holding -no practicing law -no teaching -no attending university -no land purchases or horse worth more than 5 british pounds -England wants to create a nation of poor farmers (Irish) -England creates large scale settlements in northern Ireland Scotland: -in 1690, before the union -a group of scots call the “club” tells James II they will restore him to power in return for habeas corpeas rights (cannot be imprisoned for no reason) and free speech in parliament -most of the support for stewards (James II) come from Scottish highlands (Catholic) -scottish highlands refused oath of allegiance -William goes to town of glenco (where most of James’ supporter is) -massacre in Glenco, anyone under the age of 70 were killed *(some of the last witch trials happened in Scotland in 1690, last tortures used in 1690. Scotland was a bad place) -Scottish gets a union with England -Happens during Queen Anne’s reign -Result of English security issues, scottish economic issues Scotland Darien Scheme -Scottish people sick of Scotland, leave and tries to make a colony -Darien is in Panama (Central America) -colony was a failure -only 300 of the 2,000 Scottish survive the event -Malaria -cannot grow the same food they are used to -after things being really bad in 1690, Scotland thinks it would be feasible to join in a union with England Union of Scotland and England: -Flying Squadron approaches the English for a union (economic self interest) -English has great propagandas for unions which drew the Flying Squadron in -Daniel Defoe was a great source of this propaganda -over 500 pamphlets have been published -Act of union passed in Scottish parliament -May 1 1707 -this effect
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