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Lecture

HIS241 - Lecture 2.doc

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Department
History
Course
HIS241H5
Professor
Petrakos
Semester
Fall

Description
HIS241 - Lectthe 2 September 17 , 2013 Dr. Petrakos Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution • Writing in the shadow of the Russian Revolution ◦ Amazed, and horrified, by it • He wants to identify what it means • Identifies two major revolutions ◦ English Revolution at mid-century ▪ The king was put on trial and killed, it was an experiment at republicanism ▪ Oliver Cromwell and private property ◦ French Revolution • The Stages (Using the French Revolution) ◦ Collapse of the Old Order – Long and short term causes ▪ Destruction of the ensign regime ◦ Moderate political Revolution (1789-92) ▪ Just smaller changes ◦ Radical Revolution, reign of Terror (1792-97) ▪ Think of the guillotine in the French revolution ◦ Conservative Counter Revolution, Thermidorian Reaction and Napoleon (1797-1815) ▪ Cromwell comes and takes control in England to bring order since the new changes aren't working ▪ Napoleon comes and bring order since the revolutionaries have too radical ideals ◦ Results, was it worth it? Return of the Status Quo ▪ ProAnte, Concert of Europe • Agroup formed in Europe to promote conservative ideas and prevent another French Revolution ◦ It worked, there were hardly any wars in the 19 century What is the Enlightenment? • The ideas that underpin the ideas of monarchical government ◦ The ideas of blood making you superior just because of birth • Ideas like: ◦ Progress ◦ Secularism, a move away from religion ◦ Reason • Occurred during 1650-1850 • Scholars begin to worship reason above all else • Immanuel Kant ◦ Attainment of knowledge using one's reason ◦ It's about getting to truth using your own reason, without superstition (the church), or any ancient authority ▪ Ancient authority was previously unquestioned ◦ The betterment of society using your own reason ◦ “We should all have the courage to know” ▪ It takes courage to think for one's self ▪ It's easier to let someone choose something for you • Atransnational movement ◦ They want to remove themselves from religious debate and persecution to remove to discuss what matter • This is a result of the printing press ◦ Most writing was in Latin, and French in the 18 century • They made the claims ◦ Earth is not the center of the universe ◦ Species change over time • Scientific revolution and enlightenment threaten the role of god • Called Naturalists ◦ They believe in nature's ability to cause progress ◦ They have a mechanical view of the universe ◦ They believe god created the universe and then just left it ◦ They believe they can understand the laws of the universe through observation ▪ Laws set through nature ◦ Afundamentally new way of thinking • People start thinking about the here and now instead of the afterlife, man is the center of all things ◦ Causes society to become secularized • In some ways they're substituting God for ideas about reason and progress • They're fervently anti-religion ◦ The think religion is backwards and based on superstition • These ideas are some of the reason that cause the French revolution ◦ At the same time the King was claiming he got authority from God • They believe in the perfectibility of the human race • Before the enlightenment the main idea was keeping the status quo ◦ Reform is not the way to make a better society • The enlightenment brought ideas to reform the monarchy and tax system • Francois-MarieArouet Voltaire ◦ 1694-1778 ◦ Writes from the perspective of scientific rationality ◦ He had disdain for organized religion ▪ Not only against Catholic churches, Protestant Churches also ◦ Dogma ▪ the adherence to a specific ideology ◦ He liked to ask “How do you know that's true?” ◦ He rails against anything supernatural since there was a lot of evidence against it ◦ He made much of the barbarities of the Catholic Church ▪ Inquisition ▪ It's not about peace and prosperity, it's barbaric ▪ Because of Christianity all of the natives died (not true) ▪ He's highly anti-clerical • Jean-Jacques Rousseau ◦ 1712-78 ◦ He's distrustful of ideas of reason and society can be perfected ◦ He writes discourse on arts and sciences ◦ He believes ◦ “Man is essentially born free, but he's enchained” ▪ Civilization is corrupt, it corrupts the natural goodness of man ▪ Sympathy and compassion are part of the human soul, but they're beat out of
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