Class Notes (838,402)
Canada (510,881)
History (567)
HIS241H5 (16)
Petrakos (11)

HIS241 - Lecture 2.doc

4 Pages
Unlock Document


HIS241 - Lectthe 2 September 17 , 2013 Dr. Petrakos Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution • Writing in the shadow of the Russian Revolution ◦ Amazed, and horrified, by it • He wants to identify what it means • Identifies two major revolutions ◦ English Revolution at mid-century ▪ The king was put on trial and killed, it was an experiment at republicanism ▪ Oliver Cromwell and private property ◦ French Revolution • The Stages (Using the French Revolution) ◦ Collapse of the Old Order – Long and short term causes ▪ Destruction of the ensign regime ◦ Moderate political Revolution (1789-92) ▪ Just smaller changes ◦ Radical Revolution, reign of Terror (1792-97) ▪ Think of the guillotine in the French revolution ◦ Conservative Counter Revolution, Thermidorian Reaction and Napoleon (1797-1815) ▪ Cromwell comes and takes control in England to bring order since the new changes aren't working ▪ Napoleon comes and bring order since the revolutionaries have too radical ideals ◦ Results, was it worth it? Return of the Status Quo ▪ ProAnte, Concert of Europe • Agroup formed in Europe to promote conservative ideas and prevent another French Revolution ◦ It worked, there were hardly any wars in the 19 century What is the Enlightenment? • The ideas that underpin the ideas of monarchical government ◦ The ideas of blood making you superior just because of birth • Ideas like: ◦ Progress ◦ Secularism, a move away from religion ◦ Reason • Occurred during 1650-1850 • Scholars begin to worship reason above all else • Immanuel Kant ◦ Attainment of knowledge using one's reason ◦ It's about getting to truth using your own reason, without superstition (the church), or any ancient authority ▪ Ancient authority was previously unquestioned ◦ The betterment of society using your own reason ◦ “We should all have the courage to know” ▪ It takes courage to think for one's self ▪ It's easier to let someone choose something for you • Atransnational movement ◦ They want to remove themselves from religious debate and persecution to remove to discuss what matter • This is a result of the printing press ◦ Most writing was in Latin, and French in the 18 century • They made the claims ◦ Earth is not the center of the universe ◦ Species change over time • Scientific revolution and enlightenment threaten the role of god • Called Naturalists ◦ They believe in nature's ability to cause progress ◦ They have a mechanical view of the universe ◦ They believe god created the universe and then just left it ◦ They believe they can understand the laws of the universe through observation ▪ Laws set through nature ◦ Afundamentally new way of thinking • People start thinking about the here and now instead of the afterlife, man is the center of all things ◦ Causes society to become secularized • In some ways they're substituting God for ideas about reason and progress • They're fervently anti-religion ◦ The think religion is backwards and based on superstition • These ideas are some of the reason that cause the French revolution ◦ At the same time the King was claiming he got authority from God • They believe in the perfectibility of the human race • Before the enlightenment the main idea was keeping the status quo ◦ Reform is not the way to make a better society • The enlightenment brought ideas to reform the monarchy and tax system • Francois-MarieArouet Voltaire ◦ 1694-1778 ◦ Writes from the perspective of scientific rationality ◦ He had disdain for organized religion ▪ Not only against Catholic churches, Protestant Churches also ◦ Dogma ▪ the adherence to a specific ideology ◦ He liked to ask “How do you know that's true?” ◦ He rails against anything supernatural since there was a lot of evidence against it ◦ He made much of the barbarities of the Catholic Church ▪ Inquisition ▪ It's not about peace and prosperity, it's barbaric ▪ Because of Christianity all of the natives died (not true) ▪ He's highly anti-clerical • Jean-Jacques Rousseau ◦ 1712-78 ◦ He's distrustful of ideas of reason and society can be perfected ◦ He writes discourse on arts and sciences ◦ He believes ◦ “Man is essentially born free, but he's enchained” ▪ Civilization is corrupt, it corrupts the natural goodness of man ▪ Sympathy and compassion are part of the human soul, but they're beat out of
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.