Class Notes (834,704)
Canada (508,682)
History (567)
HIS241H5 (16)
Petrakos (11)
Lecture 3

HIS241 Lecture 3 - September 24, 2013

6 Pages
126 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS241H5
Professor
Petrakos
Semester
Fall

Description
September 24, 2013 Lecture 3 Taxation - The problem (trigger of Revolution) is that the king has no idea what to do with finances - Louis XVI doesn‟t know what to do, but he must find a way to raise more revenue - He calls together a body of nobles  They‟re going to convene an assembly and talk about it - There are structural problems with the king raising finances  He needs to implement far-reaching changes in the tax structure  He needs to pass a series of new laws, etc.  He can‟t figure out how to do this and it leads to a series of problems - Jacques Necker (finance minister) also has no idea what to do  He was “cooking the books”  They don‟t have a good way of writing down how much money the king is actually getting.  Writing down more than is actually coming in  When the king figures out that there isn‟t as much money as he thinks, the monarchy loses credibility - The people (nobles/clergy) start to see the French Monarchy as being corrupt  Necker is fired from his job because of this (as are other high level positions)  Charles Alexandre Calonne is rehired and he sucks too - The king begins to realize the only way to enact meaningful reforms is through the law - Parliament will not pass any of the king‟s edicts  They saw him as corrupting the system and refused to cede to his wishes - The crux of the king‟s major problem is that he needs to reduce the nobles/clergy‟s (they need to pay taxes)  At the same time, he needs them to agree - Calonne says: we need to side-step the government, if we call together an assembly of nobles, middle-class people and clerics (“Assembly of Notables”)  However, the king handpicks who he wants there  The king is obviously going to pick the people who will agree.  Even with all the people the king handpicks, they still say “NO”  They also tell him the way he‟s going through reform has elements of despotism and tyranny  They tell him it‟s the way to do it.  The assembly lasts for a couple of days  The notables tell him if he really wants to change taxing system and fix France‟s legal code, then he must call an estates general (an assembly of the nation)  Any revision of the legal code needs to be done through the states general.  This Estates General, 1789 states to represent the nation, the people September 24, 2013  The last time the Estates General met was in 1614 when France was at war  Only in the most desperate situations is the Estates General called  When they have an assembly of all classes, it‟s a rival to the king‟s authority.  It‟s „undermining‟ the king‟s authority (“God‟s” authority)  The king doesn‟t think this is a good idea but it makes him look bad.  The situation is getting worse as there isn‟t much bread left (grain famine)  The people need to eat!  The king decides to talk to the courts and do his own thing, but Parliament tells him no.  As a last resort, he calls an estates general.  At this point, the king starts to look like a tyrant, as someone who doesn‟t look or obey the law and who will do whatever they want to.  August 17, 1788-May, 1789  Three estates: nobility, clergy, everybody else  The question is: what will everybody vote?  A problem was that the clergy and the nobility was always going to be the majority vote so they wondered whether they should vote per group or per person  The vast majority of people think the third estate represents the nation.  “What is the third estate? By Emmanuelle  States that the third estate obviously represents the nation  The king decides that they will vote by block, which is not the answer that people want as they want to vote by person.  The third estate decides that the estates general is not valid.  They‟ve come to realize that they represent the people and leave  They form the National Assembly  A lot of nobles and clergy defect to the third estate  They round everyone up and decide that they‟re the voice of the nation  It‟s a political act and kind of a moderate revolution - Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789  They all go to the tennis court to take an oath that they will keep convening until France has a written constitution  Why all of this is happening:  There are bread riots happening  People are also starving to death in the countryside - During 1780-1795 there was a famine and the price of bread rises  People are not able to afford them and start starving  The government starts to subsidize bread  They‟re placating the masses  In 1787, the price of bread started to double the price  In 1789 the harvest fails (some, but not a lot) September 24, 2013  Usually, there are reserves of grain (farmers usually hoard grain) but there aren‟t anymore.  Now people aren‟t able to afford the pricey bread  If people aren‟t able to buy bread then they don‟t have enough money to buy other necessary items.  Buying the pricey bread makes them poor  Industry starts to fail  1 in 8 people in Paris were living on the streets  Estimated 150,000 people are out of work and on the streets.  Unemployment of young men: if they don‟t have anything to do then they start to fight, riot and cause trouble.  Therefore, people begin to riot  The king decides to call in the troops (the National Guard) to stop this, but the National Guard could identify with the people as they‟re starving too  What the members of the National Assembly believe is that the king isn‟t calling in troops to stop bread crisis, but rather to dissolve their assembly.  The public thinks the king‟s fist is coming down hard on the National Assembly.  The king not only calls the troops, but he also fires a finance minister that the people respect.  So they think he‟s trying to dissolve the voice of the nation  July 14, 1789: The people begin seizing weapons in anticipation of the king‟s troops breaking up the National Assembly.  They seize numbers from a number of forts and then they go to the Bastille (the biggest fort) and storm through  They think the Bastille is an armory (it‟s also a prison)  There were also rumors that the king had arrested a few members of the Nat
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H5

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit