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Lecture 6

HIS241 Lecture 6 - October 15, 2013

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October 15, 2013 Lecture 6 Midterm (75 minutes) - Part 1: A combination of fill-in-the-blank and m/c, 40% of grade, 20 questions - Part 2: Terms: define who, what, where, when and significance. Four terms 20% total. - Part 3: Short Answer, pick four 40% - Example of a short answer questions: “In what sense does Napoleon‟s reign represent a synthesis of the old regime and enlightenment ideas?”  Answer: Napoleon Review - Code Napoleon: A legal code that he systemizes in France, takes the best of Roman law (old regime) and mixes it with the Enlightenment. - Education: He created the first public school system replete with the tracking system, etc. - Created a meritocracy, hiring people that have the credentials - Catholic Church, he reconciles French state with the Catholic Church  Old Regime because Enlightenment said Church was superstition so they separated the state and the Church, which was something the people didn‟t like - Napoleon‟s Foreign Policy (WAR): Warlike foreign policy,  Stirring up opposition and laying down foundations for future nationalism  Conscripted armies, le vie en masse (people of all social classes are in this army fighting for revolution and nation)  They instill nationalism in the places they go - Napoleon‟s Demise: He falls from power because there was a coalition against him.  Problem of succession: he marries and doesn‟t really produce children  Napoleon goes to Moscow and his army basically freezes to death and he‟s defeated in Moscow Congress of Vienna - Major European powers come together to discuss post-Napoleon Metternich, Castereagh, Alexander I - Major representatives from Austria, Great Britain and Russia - One governing idea that is in the minds of the architects is the notion of the balance of power and keeping and maintaining the balance of power  Balance of power: idea that one state can‟t become more powerful than the rest of the states - First goal: redraw map of Europe to redistribute territory - Second Goal: Achieve balance of power that prevents one nation from becoming more powerful than others (state system) - Metternich: Austria  Minister of October 15, 2013  First practitioner of real politic - Castereagh: British  Represents the people who have the most power  About 1 in 5 people were British subjects  Wants to make British interest the most important - Alexander I: Russia  Outlier at Congress of Vienna,  Considered mystical man in the deeply religious sense  He wants to format a religious basis for this new Europe  Dabbles in mysticism, occult and he‟s an arch-conservative  Wants to go back to hierarchical monarchical system kind of guy - The Congress System  Under Metternich‟s leadership, the leaders of Europe want to establish dynastic legitimacy and  Monarchy comes back  Redraw map of Europe  They don‟t take into consideration the locals  Create the German Confederation (35 states joined by a Parliament called the Bundestag)  Bundestag meets in Frankfurt  Includes Bavaria, Hanover, Wittenberg, etc.  All vow to help each other, if one state is threatened of attacked, all other states join in and help.  States don‟t really get along  Prussia becomes on of the most powerful states  The congress want to put a clamp on the Enlightenment ideologies that came about in France during the Revolution.  They want it to never happen again, because those ideas are profoundly destabilizing  We see an emergence of these arch-conservatives th  Conservatism: one of most important ideas in 19 century  Believe in political stability and tradition  Witness the destruction rot  Why should the people have a say?  Witness horrors of Revolution and want to put an end to Enlightenment ideas  Not against political change, but it should happen in a long period of time  Conservative and Conservative ideals are victors, they take forefront  Conservative ideology:  Preserve monarchy, preserve aristocrats, resist change/revolution  Equality is a dangerous myth…those at the bottom of the social hierarchy plunder from those at the top October 15, 2013  No such thing as natural rights (they‟re a myth and made up). Rights are something passed down through generations  Conservatives see an active role of religion. Religion justifies the social hierarchy. Christianity justifies the social hierarchy. Political power comes from God. The individual cannot question it. Liberal Ideology - The purpose of the government is to preserve economic, political, social freedom - Establish individual rights, press, religion, arbitrary arrest and imprisonment. Liberal champion constitutions and equality before the law. - Liberals are anti-clerical and see the church as a bastion as ignorance and superstition - Franchise to property owners: extend right to vote to property owners - Free trade… Adam Smith and John Locke are the important writers of liberal though, Many Liberals are “republican” Socialist Ideology - A response to the Industrial revolution, the creation of a new class system. - Calls for the ownership of the means o production by the community  State owned property, abolition of private property - If you abolish private property, you crate a more equitable and just society; you can reduce the inequalities that exist in society.  Everyone is equal and there isn‟t friction or tension between classes - “Problem” of the Industrial Revolution…dirty, exploitive, not in the public interest.  People are living in bad conditions and going far away for work  No worker‟s rights Nationalism - The idea that the people th
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