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Lecture 11

HIS241 Lecture 11 - November 19, 2013

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Department
History
Course
HIS241H5
Professor
Petrakos
Semester
Fall

Description
November 19, 2013 Lecture 11 Great Reforms 1850s - Development of state building in the second half of the 19 century  Themes: state building, industrialization, imperialism  Imperialism: - causes, why did it happen, course of imperialism, how it developed (particularly in Africa) and how it developed in Latin America - All about modernization… bringing Russia into the modern world. Realization the Russians need railroads, political reorganization, modern armies. - Alexander II frees the serfs and gives them land - Introduces Zemstvo… local assembly (political centralization for public) - Enormous Railroad building (Russia is the largest country)  Move industrial agricultural goods from interior to markets - Alexander II assassinated. His brother comes to the throne…brother is reactionary but industrialization moves forward. - Industrialization in Russia happens mid-century - Largely in service to the military - Russia is vast landmass - Realization that there needs to be a railroad system - In 1860, there was only 1,200 miles of track-In 1880, Russia has about 15,000 miles of track - Railroads help Russia move army along vast distance as well as grain through interior - Industrial Revolution gives rise and strengthens Russia’s military machine, because of industrialization and railroad, they’re able to move troops throughout their vast empire  They start to expand - Under Alexander III, Sergei Witte, prime minister - Appoints Sergei Witte as prime minister  Lives through Crimean War and learns that if Russia is going to compete on the world market, they’ll have to compete with the British  Russia needs to be able to compete with British  Tries to enact action and moves on several fronts  Railroad manage by training (profoundly organized)  New rising middle class type who’s educated  Under his guidance, state railroad system expands and increases  Changes the face of modern Russia  Creates tariffs (gov’t imposed tax on imported goods)  Economy becomes protectionist  People are more inclined to buy national goods  He uses western Europeans to help Russia catch up with the west, he brings in engineers, wealthy industrialists (from Britain and France) in order to teach Russians how to industrialize  They help to create modern steel mills, help develop coal industry,  By 1900, only three countries in the world were producing more steel than Russians: British, Germans and the US November 19, 2013 - During this time period, Russia also starts to develop oil industry  Start to expand territory as well - By the turn of the century, Russia becomes a major imperial power, has influence in China and in the west - Around this time that Russians start to approach on Japanese territory, Japanese didn’t like it LOL  Japanese wage war against Russians  Russians lose  Middle class revolts and blame Tsar  Middle class demand liberalized government (power from the people!)  Workers want a socialist-Marxist government that would give workers a greater autonomy and authority within the government  Tsar wants a more absolute form of government Russian Empire - Poles, Ukrainians, others  They want their own sovereign nation  They want their autonomy so they start to revolt - In Russia, burgeoning labour movement - As a result of great reforms, people are better off  People are materially better off  Rising expectations produces unhappiness and can be profoundly, politically destabilizing - January 1905, factory workers in St. Petersburg strike  Father Gapon (priest) leads workers to Tsar’s winter palace  Comes with petition signed by workers, which asked for better working conditions, more consideration, etc.  Tsar heard they were coming and he leaves town before they come  The workers refuse to disband when the army asks them to  Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905): the army kills about 300 people and injure 1,000 people  No more troops around to stop worker revolts b/c most army is fighting Japanese October Manifesto (1905) - Tsar starts to accede to demands of workers b/c all troops are fighting - He creates October Manifest in 1905, which is the Russian’s attempt at constitutionalism - Creation of the Duma (parliament) - Free Press  Agree to more democracy in Russia and the Free Press is essential to that - Political parties develop  Result: the Tsar has opened up an opportunity for people to challenge him - Russia has never had an experiment in democracy - Parties start to question Tsar, criticize Tsar’s prime ministers, say that workers and peasants should have more land, - Tsar dissolves Duma in 1907 and doesn’t meet again in 1915 November 19, 2013 European Imperialism 1900 - Relationship between technology and imperialism - After 1870, there is a new imperialism - Imperialism has characterized European history - First big wave of European imperialism was in 1492 with Iberian discovery - 1492-1870 is the timeline of New Imperialism - From 1870-1910, Europe comes to control about 85% of the globe - New players in imperialist game – Germans, Italians, and the French  Dutch, British and US??? - US come to dominate Western hemisphere (Latin America) - Japan even begins to enter imperialist game - Why imperialism and what characterizes new imperialism?  Rise of industrialization  It also means that Europe becomes dependent on other parts of the globe for raw materials  Europe doesn’t have all that they need to drive industrialization  They need rubber, oil (palm oil for gears),  They look to rely on other parts of the globe for their own standard of living  1873 depression provides catalyst for industrial revolution  Declining demand for industrial products  Capitalists believe imperialism could be the solution  New territory was seen as new markets (capture markets to sell goods)  By 1890s, the depression ends and Europeans begin to embark on great economic expansions  This boom contributes to new imperialism  Europeans start building more railroads and mines all over the world  After Europeans begin to expand, they come to see the
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