Class Notes (838,704)
Canada (511,053)
History (567)
HIS241H5 (16)
Petrakos (11)
Lecture 11

HIS241 Lecture 11 - November 19, 2013

6 Pages
Unlock Document


November 19, 2013 Lecture 11 Great Reforms 1850s - Development of state building in the second half of the 19 century  Themes: state building, industrialization, imperialism  Imperialism: - causes, why did it happen, course of imperialism, how it developed (particularly in Africa) and how it developed in Latin America - All about modernization… bringing Russia into the modern world. Realization the Russians need railroads, political reorganization, modern armies. - Alexander II frees the serfs and gives them land - Introduces Zemstvo… local assembly (political centralization for public) - Enormous Railroad building (Russia is the largest country)  Move industrial agricultural goods from interior to markets - Alexander II assassinated. His brother comes to the throne…brother is reactionary but industrialization moves forward. - Industrialization in Russia happens mid-century - Largely in service to the military - Russia is vast landmass - Realization that there needs to be a railroad system - In 1860, there was only 1,200 miles of track-In 1880, Russia has about 15,000 miles of track - Railroads help Russia move army along vast distance as well as grain through interior - Industrial Revolution gives rise and strengthens Russia’s military machine, because of industrialization and railroad, they’re able to move troops throughout their vast empire  They start to expand - Under Alexander III, Sergei Witte, prime minister - Appoints Sergei Witte as prime minister  Lives through Crimean War and learns that if Russia is going to compete on the world market, they’ll have to compete with the British  Russia needs to be able to compete with British  Tries to enact action and moves on several fronts  Railroad manage by training (profoundly organized)  New rising middle class type who’s educated  Under his guidance, state railroad system expands and increases  Changes the face of modern Russia  Creates tariffs (gov’t imposed tax on imported goods)  Economy becomes protectionist  People are more inclined to buy national goods  He uses western Europeans to help Russia catch up with the west, he brings in engineers, wealthy industrialists (from Britain and France) in order to teach Russians how to industrialize  They help to create modern steel mills, help develop coal industry,  By 1900, only three countries in the world were producing more steel than Russians: British, Germans and the US November 19, 2013 - During this time period, Russia also starts to develop oil industry  Start to expand territory as well - By the turn of the century, Russia becomes a major imperial power, has influence in China and in the west - Around this time that Russians start to approach on Japanese territory, Japanese didn’t like it LOL  Japanese wage war against Russians  Russians lose  Middle class revolts and blame Tsar  Middle class demand liberalized government (power from the people!)  Workers want a socialist-Marxist government that would give workers a greater autonomy and authority within the government  Tsar wants a more absolute form of government Russian Empire - Poles, Ukrainians, others  They want their own sovereign nation  They want their autonomy so they start to revolt - In Russia, burgeoning labour movement - As a result of great reforms, people are better off  People are materially better off  Rising expectations produces unhappiness and can be profoundly, politically destabilizing - January 1905, factory workers in St. Petersburg strike  Father Gapon (priest) leads workers to Tsar’s winter palace  Comes with petition signed by workers, which asked for better working conditions, more consideration, etc.  Tsar heard they were coming and he leaves town before they come  The workers refuse to disband when the army asks them to  Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905): the army kills about 300 people and injure 1,000 people  No more troops around to stop worker revolts b/c most army is fighting Japanese October Manifesto (1905) - Tsar starts to accede to demands of workers b/c all troops are fighting - He creates October Manifest in 1905, which is the Russian’s attempt at constitutionalism - Creation of the Duma (parliament) - Free Press  Agree to more democracy in Russia and the Free Press is essential to that - Political parties develop  Result: the Tsar has opened up an opportunity for people to challenge him - Russia has never had an experiment in democracy - Parties start to question Tsar, criticize Tsar’s prime ministers, say that workers and peasants should have more land, - Tsar dissolves Duma in 1907 and doesn’t meet again in 1915 November 19, 2013 European Imperialism 1900 - Relationship between technology and imperialism - After 1870, there is a new imperialism - Imperialism has characterized European history - First big wave of European imperialism was in 1492 with Iberian discovery - 1492-1870 is the timeline of New Imperialism - From 1870-1910, Europe comes to control about 85% of the globe - New players in imperialist game – Germans, Italians, and the French  Dutch, British and US??? - US come to dominate Western hemisphere (Latin America) - Japan even begins to enter imperialist game - Why imperialism and what characterizes new imperialism?  Rise of industrialization  It also means that Europe becomes dependent on other parts of the globe for raw materials  Europe doesn’t have all that they need to drive industrialization  They need rubber, oil (palm oil for gears),  They look to rely on other parts of the globe for their own standard of living  1873 depression provides catalyst for industrial revolution  Declining demand for industrial products  Capitalists believe imperialism could be the solution  New territory was seen as new markets (capture markets to sell goods)  By 1890s, the depression ends and Europeans begin to embark on great economic expansions  This boom contributes to new imperialism  Europeans start building more railroads and mines all over the world  After Europeans begin to expand, they come to see the
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H5

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.