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HIS261H5 (26)

Jan 14, 2013.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Richard White

History of Canada: Early Years Slow initial growth: discover of the St. Lawrence, 1642 no formal activity for 60 years, discovered & claimed and left. All has to do with European circumstances, what did develop was commercial fishery in the coast of newfoundland, the ocean below and beyond, the gulf of St. Lawrence in the 60 years no formal discovery, fisherman came from various European ports and substantive fishery developed. “Green Fishery” caught the fish in large numbers put them on your ship & packed them on your ship with salt, took a month/few weeks, sail right back to Europe, never went on the land. Another way was “dry fishery” go on to the shore, laid them out to dry and hope they would fit and repack them on your ship, used more by the English men. Developed a port along NFLD “Red Bay” catching whales occurred, which was very dangerous at the time. Whale was a huge animal. Sainte Marie among the Huron: Partial territory claim to certain shores, French fishery would claim one, English another etc, territorial claim to come back to the same spot at prime time during the spring. This was a population of settled people in some sense because they would regularly return to the same spot. Europeans were using the sea, no conflict with the Aboriginals at that time, very small contact, spin off industry was the fur trade: reason popular in Europe was raw material for making hats, way you make felt from fur, you don’t use the hair on the surface, you use that below you can scrape off the material, the fur trade was profitable resource as a separate industry started emerging after 1503, center of fur trade was much further inland, for centuries had. Further upstream the French would have more notes, - Champlain: first attempt at fur trade operation to bring out settlers to run it, in Bay of Fundy, 1603 began to try to set up a fur trade there, not successful not many natives and furs, Champlain had the idea to go further inland. Brought only a few dozen men to start the fur trade. - Native role in founding, 1608 founding compare of Canada: due to the first real settlement, Quebec City considers this to be the year it was found. Genesis of Canada, establishment of this French colony, history of a country French colony Never much of a fishery in St. Lawrence river, but it was to be a fur trade settlement, made an alliance with the people who were Algonquin speaking people, two immediate Consequences of this arrangement: supply with fur 1) made enemies with Iroq, lived south of there had long with competition with Algonquin people, now suddenly Champlain had formally alliance with one of the two sides, the second was due to this alliance, the Algonquin made them go inland where they alliance with the Huron., Iroq began a connection with Quebec/Montreal with upper countries due to alliance with Algonquians, Champlain was devoted to them, generally said to be a founder of Canada, small settlement, financially uncertain, if the furs didn’t come in they wouldn’t have anything to trade, after ten years, the population was at 50, company was reorganized, Christian Missionaries: activity had been one of the reasons for this exploration, to change them to Christians, missionaries came across 1615 sent out a few men to convert a few people, mostly failed, 1625 those “jez-er-was”- look up this name, large established order of monks, society of Jesus, play a significant history 1632, only talking small, Women: Ursaline, 1639, Nuns established school for girls, social services, hospitals etc. Society of Notre Dame, 1640s established a new mission, read books and see the new founders of the missionary order, iconic figures, By 1650s population was 1000 settlement was running along the St. Lawrence, little bit of agriculture, only to support the people who lived there. When all this was happening, the jez-e-was became an enterprise in land, to travel all the way into Quebec city, you could only travel by canoe they decided go inland, Lake Simcoe, 1634: leadership of a man “Brebeuf” established their mission there, in 38/39 began building an substantial enterprise in saw wood, workshops, trade shops, dozen priests and others transferred there. French monarch wanted to claim ownership, would that explain how far they would go inland, or why a priest would go, missionaries would do. In doing so they introduced disease, did begin to convert a large amount of the Huron, can mass conversion occur What came from this was a divide society, some Christian some not, people who were dying those who
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