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HIS261H5 (26)
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Department
History
Course
HIS261H5
Professor
Richard White
Semester
Winter

Description
st LECTURE TWELVE/April 1 2013  The 1960s: broader context this revolution singles the end of a post war period, but arguments can be made that it’s a product of the period. This period was an international development, US + West, 1968 Paris – Student Street Protest led to violence. Many referred to the 68 as the “68ers” aging radicals. Heart of the 60s opposite to conventional norms, “counter culture” and manifested itself in standard things – long hair, informal dress, public protest against authority, increase drug use etc. – Decade of protest? Manners & Morals changed in the cultural transformation. – Continuities with 50s - counterculture: opposed to conventional norms, manifested itself in standard things – long hair, informal dress, public protest against authority, increase drug use etc, less western was starting to be interested in other cultures. Two different times: “Hippies” drop out long hair, the other was “political engaged radical” both challenged convention. Both flourished in the 1960s, the radicals had an impact of their own, their own movement was called the “New Left” emerged from the student radicals from the 1960s, hippies didn’t have anything to do with Left, didn’t read Marx or anything. Why did this happen: baby boom phenomena, lots of children grew up and were forced to stay in school and didn’t work, universities built, student loans, no surprise university is a place for counter culture. Baby boom phenomena and counter culture phenomena. Low income people and rural people genuinely did not take part in the counter culture, urban more. Another important was the growth of popular culture; popular music reached out and contacted everyone. Consuming power of teenagers. Other influence US civil rights movement, black people resisting long standing racism inspired the white people, the American students went down to the south to assist with the black protests, and modeled some of their protests with them. Environmentalism was growing in the late 60s, turned people against industries (counter culture). Stopped being so formal, in universities stopped wearing suits. Start to become a slob. This stayed to this day. Happened in late 60s, lots of young people speak to old people by their first name. Intellectually to a legacy= counter culture has left an impact on how they view the discovery of Canada, the self-critical perspective of Europeans came from this. Political new left became culture studies, labor studies, women studies. Became critical of capitalism. All these principles a lot began in the 1960s. Governing council got influenced by student representatives, now they are consulted at major decisions. Students protested elitism where they were not allowed to check out books, this was changed through protests. - Anti-Americanism: even in 1950s became concern about Canada dependence on USA for economic and military. This was a minority perspective under Beakenbaker, it was conservative. Anti-Americans in the 1950s were conservative, should maintain with larger ties with Britain. Wanted to keep the old ways, didn’t want to buy manufactured products to play with. By the late 60s this began to change, the main external event was the Vietnam War in 1964, 65. Canada had stood beside USA in the cold war, and participated in Korean War in 50s, but the Vietnam war was unsupported. Many Canadian people. Public opinion shifted during Vietnam War. The next was the race riots, Detroit, New York, New Jergsey had these race, US had to bring in the army to put down these property damage etc. 1965. This made Canadians fearful of US. Economic Nationalism began to flourish, how much Canadian investment was in America, question if factories would expand would be in the US. Those on the intellectual left were concerned about this; NDP became a public issue in 1960s. A lot of federal government protection in the 70s was manifestation of economic dependence on the USA. 50s = political right, but economic nationalism and anti-Americans of 1960s, was on the left. Still that way today. How is this connected to the counter culture, fueled by the anti-Vietnam war movement, lots of anti-Americans came to Canada.  Pierre (Elliott) Trudeau -Personal background: born 1919, raised bilingual studied law at university of Montreal, went to Harvard in 1940s, and went to Paris for economics. Never got any degrees, never got anything more than law degree. Travelled internationally, wanted to experience it personally, travelled to communist China, Soviet Russia. Settled in Montreal and became active in politics in 1950 to reform Quebec politics, he was not a politician, but an intellectual journalist. Didn’t have a job, father was wealthy, but father died when he was young.Very critical of current situation in Quebec, wrote some articles and were published in journals. -political ideas: Advocating reform and challenges the status quo, challenging the challengers, didn’t fit into the mainstream reformers, the reason was Quebec through 20 century strongly dominated by Catholic Church, many of public institutions like public education, child care etc. were ran by the church in Quebec in 1950s. They were saying they were protecting their culture by subordinating to the church. New reformers were dismissing this, wanted a secular state like the rest of the world, free education and social services from church & grow government instead. Trudeau sensed in this was nationalism; the critics in this year were redefining nationalism, not a church ridden people, but we are a people, and the nation (separate from the rest of Canada). He didn’t like the idea of Quebec seeing them as a nation, they defined themselves as a “people” anti-nationalist and he argued when you define yourself as a people you build walls around you, which prohibit the incoming ideas from elsewhere, nationalism is inherently conservative, its unequal, nationalism is bad. And what the French Canadians needed to break free of nationalism and open up to the rest of Canada, not a popular view in Quebec at the time, went against the established institutions and the reformers. He became anti-nationalist, obsessive. In 1960, the province of Quebec went through a major political transition, Liberal party was suddenly elected to power, filled with all these people who wanted to remove the church powers, 1960-62, 63 major reforms in Quebec that brought in public education for the first time, was not a government run until 1962. Serious of major reforms (quiet revolution). Trudeau was influential, no part in the quiet revolution. He thought it was still nationalism, protecting themselves as a “people” he went into federal politics. Joined Pearson’s government and thought that was the best thing for Canada, to become involved in Canadian government. This is still the dividing point in Quebec: sovereigns/separatist vs. federalist. Trudeau represented the federalist perspective. Rose to the top quickly, Minister of Justice in 1967, chosen new leader of Liberal party in 1968, had won a majority government. Trudeau was PM of Canada. 1968 extremely popular in election, “Trudeau Mania”. Popularity had nothing to do with political views, views on federalism were irrelevant. Trudeau’s view on federalism is very well known, and we know Trudeau was popular, assumption this goes together (separate). Counter- Culture made him popular, born in 1919, was 50, but somehow he had adopted some features of the counter- culture, travelled had seen communism, didn’t wear a tie, single a lot, this is what made him popular, he was appealing to young people. Remained PM until 1979, and lost to Joe Clark. Clark fell after a couple months, Trudeau won the next election 1980 for 4 more years. 1968- 1984. In this last period in offices, Canada finally brought its constitution back and along with this he introduced Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Retired in 1984, died in 2000. -some early policies Early years very important reforms, introduced official language act in 1969, furthered Canadian bilingualism, also led “October Crisis” of 1970 when FLQ kidnapped the British trade commissioner, widespread panic. High profile event. Reforms of Multiculturalism & Reform of Aboriginals. • Aboriginal reforms: through 20 century didn’t take part in the economic prosperity, there were job opportunities agricultural labor, in some areas, specific northwest samon camps. Worked as provisioners and guides. There wasn’t much of that, fur trade still alive in northern parts but was gone in south. Decline in fur trade, the critical role that native people played was distorted, natives were marginal on this. Population of native people declined in 20 century. The crown lands set aside for native use was taken back, population was declining there was demand for new farmers in the area, or infrastructure project, the land was taken back. Not technically owned by the Natives but reserved for their use, made sense to take it back if population was declining. Aboriginal people did survive through these years. Population declined but 1930 it turned around, census in 1941 showed this. Many lived in underdeveloped north, some reserves in settled parts, began to go into the cities. India
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