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march 4.docx

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Richard White

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Brief Recap of Last Generation: railways built from east to west, 1885 concluded the railway, you could get from Vancover to Montreal in a few days, Indian Act= 1876 all of the assimilation, what makes it so amazing its still in effect. Establishment of Provincial Rights, Tariffs Confederation created the province of Quebec, French Canadian perception of confederation, celebratory , but Quebec discovered it didn’t have a big economy establishment of protected tariffs McDonald introduced in the 1880s, Tariffs was not removed until Mulroney free trade agreement, lasted over 100 years. Last so long some people thought the industries would die without the tariff. Some industries that died, others stimulated by the access to American market. Not trivial things, lasted for a century. One thing important; question of Canadian identity; points of 1870s, 80s, mean to be a Canadian? Those who had reformed this new country what was a citizen Problem = two important points French Canadian & English Canadian. French Canada= flourishing of nationalism, ethnic nationalism not Canadian nationalism. Confederation created the province of Quebec, didn’t just create Canada but Quebec, some French view confederation as the creation of their nation. Celebratory mode amongst French Canadian for their state and disappointment in first generation, as Quebec discovered it did not have complete autonomy. As it thought. Nationalism tends to be stimulated by defensiveness, often a minority within a majority that develops a national identity. Strong nationalist identity of art & culture in 70/80s. Poet wrote Oh Canada, Canada was their country. French poet, translated into English for whole country, but originally it was a French Canadian national song. Other side of the English Canada- stronger identity with British Empire, British Empire was active but part of British empire, felt more important. Canada was not important than or now, feel better if part of grander scheme. That was the case with this Imperial identity of 1880s and 1890s, Canadian imperialism = Canadian identity as part of the empire. From this came all these visual things in school of the British Empire late 19 century. When English people came to Canada in the 1890s, there were powerful identity of Britis1840h, Canadians were more interested in the empire than the British, invented Victoria day, British didn’t do that. Leads into the immature colonialism, national identity, binding mindset amongst Canadian people because they don’t go together very well Wilfrid Laurier as PM 1896-1911. Serious of majority governments, played role like john a MacDonald for liberal party, liberal party in late 19 century barely existed. Liberal was divided th but did come together in that time, but under Laurier came together even more. By end of 19 century two national party similar, brokerage party, resolve issues within them, nation-wide elements. Raised bilingualism, McGill university got a law degree. Early liberals Rouge- 1850s- 60s rouge in French Canada, his box. Didn’t buy the connection with the church, anti-clerical not th saying he was secular didn’t like church dominating the government. Principal of 19 century liberalism, part of anti-clerical French Canada, like Laurier doesn’t get that much attention. Conservative larger piece, but liberal anti-clerical pro free trade. Didn’t like the idea of the government legislating monopolies, Hudson bay company monopoly, awarded to people part of inner circle of government. Replicate the elite of today, liberals wanted to bring down these traditional monopolies. Louis won the court case, got to trade in the red river, modern century liberalism: challenging the monopolies being set before them. Anti-clerical & free trade two things they supported Leader: once became leader, needed to moderate their position to get more popular, anti- monopoly/clerk helped get them reelected, conservatives were failing & McDonald had passed. So moderate he became he retained McDonalds tariff, before he opposed it. Once he got in power he left it in place, not first politician to do that. Laurier first French PM of modern Canada, one of the few. Not known for champion of people of leader of Canada, known for compromising. Political style example: Crisis in late 1890s in Canadian participation in “Boer War”, a lot of people wanted Canada to participate (because of British), to join in. Laurier not inclined, French Canadian Nationalist were appalled by this idea, thought this was immature. They had sense of themselves as North American people, why go fight for their former colonial power, no sympathy for imperial cause. Didn’t completely back away new there was a lot of English support, at Canadian government expense, volunteers who wished to fight in the wars, those would be trained and equipped & transported to South Africa, at the Canadian government expense. Once there they would be part of British military & take no part. They had to provide some aid for those that volunteered. Laurier did Win some favor, but some Liberals in his caucus had walked out when he did this, formed a separate bloc because felt not good w/ his needs. Over next 10 years, He steadily lost support in French Canada because he had to compromise. First Canadian PM, best known for compromising and loss of French Canadian support. Immigration: age of Laurier, heavier than any time even present. From 1901-1914 there was 1.5 million immigrants entered Canada. 3 years before war, 1911,12,13 almost a million in these years. Population at the time was only 6/7 million. 5% entering every year, (300,000) per year. Far higher proportion of immigrants, country totally transformed by experience, fulfilled hopes people who wanted to come, but why? International circumstances= Canadian government had some impact on policies, but not that much and there was less land available to the USA which was immigrants first choice. What the Government wanted to do was populate the prairie west, obsessed with creating a new empire (also to help manage the new railway). It promoted and worked. 100,000+ moved in prairie took free land under Manitoba act, gave free land. The population farmer established. 1 aspect main goal did happen. Boom in industrial employment & production, 100,000+ tradesmen & unskilled workers often came through arrangements through large employers who needed men to build the railway. By 1913 43% were unskilled laborers. Quite different experience, the Homestead is usually a family that comes & owns lands, and has a whole project to clear the land, very different from industrial workers, different living, work for wages instead of owning land. Different kind of immigration. These workers worked all over the country, forests of northern Ontario & Quebec, mines in BC/Alberta, railway construction throughout the country. They also took work in cities building streets, nonagricultural immigrants are huge part of the immigration phenomena. many of these industrial workers not immigrants strictly, Settlers and sojourners sojourners= didn’t come intending to settle. Came to work for season and leave, go back to some village or go to the US. Didn’t come as settlers, contrast to settlers. Turns out they settled in the city, what happened is their work was often seasonal work. Many ended up staying in permanent city. Beginning of Ethnic neighborhoods in Canada. The foundation was sojourners who decided to settle. Farmer immigrant =true settlers, ethnic diversity was part of government policy. Laurier government publicized that they needed people who were prepared to do physical work, to set up these farmers, they were peasants. Began to see if the people were not British, they were hard working peasants. This is when government policy made a difference; they promoted immigration of Slavic people from eastern and central Europe. 10,000+ people came, struck an arrangement of influential statesmen’s in Ukraine to come (ethnic area not yet a state). Government facilitated it by setting up shipping companies and promoting immigration to Canada. Such people had never been excluded before, not a major change. Ukrainians had been coming, it was an effort, and publicly stated that non English immigrants were allowed to come. Consequences:  Western settlement transformed by European people. Large number of polish Hungarian, Swedish, German etc. southern parts of Europe Italians Greeks etc. came to do these contracts. Asians came, mostly Chinese settled in Western Canada BC. Almost no sign of Asians in the rest of Canada. One of the immediate consequences of this was western Canadian became fully established. Farms were built, land was cleared and Settle society began to develop. Rate of movement very high, land got filled within 10-15 years. Single generation of all this migration. Ranching did develop but different economically and social structure. Not only was this farm development, but a whole range of human society, towns, cities, banks, all institutions got established, what we have is another pioneer society, 100 years after the upper Canada pioneer society, faster here in prairie west due to the railway, but it was like upper Canadian experience, lots of physical work and made sacrifices so children could have better life. Pioneer society was replicated again in Prairie west. Pioneer in Prairie West not that far away, culture of self-reliance, is still present in Prairie West, that why the self-reliance politics is popular in that area, populist politics is self-reliance, where people will get together for their spare time and do something colle
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