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05 The Union Period and the Confederation Era.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Richard White

05 The Union Period and the Confederation Era Midterm  Four questions; choose three. Say as much as you can in one hour  Taken quotes from the textbook, explain them o Has page number for these quotes  E-mail if have any questions  Bring test papers yourself o There are paper for you to write on  Frontier and the metropolis for example Recap  British North America is very close to modern day Canada. It is the left over of what the British did not want. The territory taking shape is British indeed.  Most of the settlers were involved in farming, but were not especially prosperous because growing season was short, but it was still viable  In Newfoundland, settlement continued to grow in the early 19 century  The lumber industry fed into a ship building industry in New Brunswick in the 1820 – 1940 o The ships were used to carry logs that were not sawed across the sea as exports o The ship industry was a transport industry and also an industry of their own o Nova Scotia became world renowned as a successful shipping company for building ships and also for transporting wood around the world  They also developed a technique of having a number of sails made ships sail faster. It was called the „Blue Nose‟  The names in political boundaries also took place o Isle Saint John  St. John‟s Island  Prince Edwards Island  The early 19 century was well established and were distinct from New England and the United States o In the 1830‟s Nova Scotia‟s connection to the sea and the British empire was stronger than ever  Lower Canada was still the heart of Canada. However, everywhere else was very prosperous o The population growth was very interesting. Growth came to the eastern townships and elsewhere o Rupert‟s Land (the territory draining into the Hudson‟s Bay Company)  After the creation of the United States, trade needed to go further north and further west. Most of the settlements were in the prairies. There were some settlements beginning where rivers joined  Settlement was beginning for the aboriginals by the river o Furs no longer went to Montreal. All the fur went up north instead  Pacific coast o Replicates what happened 100years ago in the eastthoast o The west coast had been explored in the 17 and 18 century by the Spanish coming from the South. The Russian fur traders came by water because the sea was easy to travel, but there was a lot of forestry th o It was not until the late 18 century when formal occurred  Cook took refuge in Nute Casal. He encountered some native people  Captain Vancouver established a British claim in the 1790s to present Vancouver  Canadian traders are beginning to access the pacific coast, while Americans also try to come up. o 1800 - It was the Americans and Canadians who had shared interest in occupying the pacific coast. They had a joint occupancy for the time being  In 1818, the 49 parallel was confirmed. However, the Canadians and Americans were not able to create boundaries because of the terrain  Very early on, Americans focused their settlement in the Columbus river  Canadians responded to the concentration of Columbus by creating Victoria (named after the Queen)  It was clear now that the 49 parallel will extend throughout the mountains o By the 1820s, there is another element of British North America.  It was hard to call them; there were many names such as „British Columbia‟, „Victoria‟, etc.  It is not just a question of authority or labor. Although these colonies were British, there were similar social compensations.  British Columbia was tied towards the United States because of the significant settlement in California  There was no communication between Canada and the Rupert‟s Land o There is a lack of communication among these people  There are 4 or 5 Atlantic colonies: They are quite different to one another  Upper Canada  Lower Canada  Rupert‟s Land  British Columbia  On the side, The islands communicated to British  These are the roots to Canada to this day. Even in politics, Canada is divided into regions. When we have regional representations, we have these regions  Three concluding points o Canada was the most populous of all British North America. It became even more so by the 1860s with its numbers and dominance. This helps to explain why „Canada‟ was used to describe Canada. Modern day Canada was actually an annexation of all other parts of Canada. The name of one colony was used for the name of the whole country, this was not a coincidence o 1) The Britishness of them all o 2) Their difference  The regions of Canada, their uniqueness o 3) The absence of communication Canada  Dominant colony o 1830s Population of Upper Canada is much more dispersed than Lower Canada. The most visible place of growth was Upper Canada. More and More farmland were produced, and a long this came a more functional society  Upper Canada: pioneer society o The towns are developed as merchants set it up o The population of York (Toronto) was 5,000 in 1830s. o The first 10 came from Jarvis to Parliament, then Adelaide, and King to Front. o Towns were established in Upper Canada  The people who create these towns started from only forests  If you look at the map, the frontier is moving. There still scenes of forestry in the 1840s because new farms were being carved from woods o The process will start again in the prairies, but later they will have railways and therefore it was change must faster o There is a huge amount of physical work; you live for the future and not for the present. There is a constant sacrifice  There are no schools unless you physically build them. There is no institutions where you function in unless you build them o Cooperation was essential because there was no labor. Neighbors needed to come and do work for you. The settlers would pool their labor and achieve something. They would commit themselves collectively for on day to create something, then go back to their own private projects  It has been romanticized. The goal of pioneers was trying to make money actually. They tried to create commercial farms so that they can get out of pioneer society. There is a built in irony built into it. o It does have a less strict social hierarchy. People who came from England were shocked at this. i.e. If a servant has enough money, they can buy their own land  There was a certain freedom of leveling that went on. People would call each other by name, but at the same time, class system was still important because if you had money, you were able to sell your tools and so on o Pioneer society was highly risky. Without a doctor nearby, you would probably die.  If hail came, you had very little to fall back on  We forget how reliant we are on social institutions o The looseness of the new society affects the culture transferred from the metropolitan  There are countless examples of old world coming into the new world and is changed because of the region  Lower Canada: growth and change o It was not a new society made out of notion, it is an established colonial and industrial society o There were many people arriving and the seugnurial were still present and did not change o The forest industry which is new now have a lot of Irish people working in the woods  The Canadian men and Irish men would fight and there were significant social divisions o There were a lot of jobs create by trade  There were also people who worked in the growing ports of Quebec, more than Montreal  Eventually, in the 1840s, a ship channel was exuviated  But as of right now, Quebec is still the port that they needed to use o Right now, there is 20% in Montreal who were English speaking and 40% in Quebec o Wheat economic after 1815 took a great decline especially in the old seugnurial places  It seems as if the soil was simply exhausted. The intensity of cropping made soil not able to replenish. There were also signs of infestation  The records of production are clear, wheat took a steep decline and made a lot of social and economic distress in the country side o With population growing, and culture diversified, lower Canada became more complex  People started speaking English, more waged labor (instead of being farmers), more merchants (imports and exports), more professionals (lawyers and notary)  Notary – As society modernized, it was one area where they came very well established in. Notary is a long-standing occupation o This is different from what is happening in Upper Canada  Rebellions of 1837 o There were political rebellions in the November of 1837 o There were two separate events, but occurred at the same time Upper Canada o 1791 – The act of creating upper and lower Canada had antidemocratic features so that the institution will have legislative and political power over the c
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