02 The Colony of New France: The Canadien Roots of Canada (1600 to 1760s)
Cartier has discovered Saint Lawrence River. They discovered it, claimed it, then left it
What did develop was a commercial fishery in Newfoundland. There is relatively shallow water
and filled regularly with fishes.
o In these 60 years, it was an international fishery and claimed land in the Saint Lawrence
o Fisher mans came from various fisher ports, and these were developed
o Green Fishery – caught the fish, gutted them, pack them with salt and then salt them back
to Europe. You never go on the land
o Dry Fishery – get a boat full of fish, unload the fish in the shore, lay them out to dry
during the summer, then repack them and take them back to Europe.
The British used dry fishery because supposedly they lacked salt, and thus used
the land a lot
There was also whaling. The “Basts” who did not have their own country
became very good whalers. Red Bay was known because they were exhibited
There was no real settlement along the coast of Saint Lawrence, but there was
something that was a semi-settlement.
PICTURE: Cod fishing and drying by the French in the eighteenth
Eventually, these places built shelves so they were able to dry fishes
They did not take long to realize that they wanted to create territorial
claims in different shores
o People did begin to winter over to look after the equipment.
This was a population of settled people
One period in the 1580‟s, there were 1200 men who were employed. This was
obviously a large investment into material and money that the European
capitalists are doing. Commercial fishery began to develop
o There is no role for the native people because the Europeans are not using the land, they
are using the sea. Therefore during this time, they did not communicate with the native
people as much as later on.
o The reason why fur is popular in Europe was because of the use of felt for making hats
o The fishing boats came out became small traders. The native people knew that the
Europeans wanted the fur. Beaver was particularly good. This was a spinoff industry
This was actually as profitable as the fishery. In 1580, ships were coming to the
gulf sole for fur. This was known as the fur trade
o The center of the fur trade was much further in land. Natives had for centuries used this
as a trading route. The Europeans learned this and began to go to the trading place.
o 1600 – dozens of boats were in the region trading for fur. They were coming specifically
It was this international activity that made the French come more often. The
king also by this time wanted to encourage the fur trader to create businesses
and thus had a stronger claims, which in turn will bring out settlers
o What the French King did was granted the trading monopoly. The king made it legal for
one specific trader to trade in a specific area. When you have a monopoly. You do not
have to worry about other competitions and can invest in infrastructure
Monopoly is bad for prices because the person can charge whatever they want,
but they wanted business men to invest money in the fur trade. This was the
strategy to furthering claim
At first, it was not successful, but de Monts was given a monopoly in North
America (monopoly was given around the globe at this time), and employed a mariner (Champlain?), and the first attempt was at the Bay of Fundy in 1603 to
set up a first company. However, it was not successful
o Champlain believed that they needed to set up their fur trade in Stadacona (now Quebec)
Be brought a few dozen men to have this establishment going
He knew that the Stadacona Iroquois are all gone
They created an abitasion and this was believed to be a founded Canada, and the
genesis of Canada
The word Canada started to be used
o The French colonies turned into Canada, and the English colonies turned into America
Modern Canada evolved from a French colony in the rule of English…WHAT!?
Slow initial growth
o This settlement of Champlain had an economic base for fur trade
Champlain had an agreement with the Algonkin people, and Iroquois were mad.
Huron were Iroquois, but were trade partners with the Algonkin and were
enemies with the Iroquois
Champlain travelled himself to meet the Huron people in 1612, and formalized
an alliance with the Hurons. This began a connection between Quebec and
Samuel de Champlain did much to secure this colony, and stayed. He was said
to be the founder of New France (Founder of Canada). Highly respected and
o It was a very small settlement, approximately a few thousand men. After about 10 years,
the population increased but was around 50. The company was reorganized with new
owners in France. The trading post was however, captured by the British in 1629, but
returned to the French a few years later.
o Missionary activities
Addition to the fur trade sustaining this colony was the Christian missionaries.
Within a few years, Christian missionaries began to travel across. The
recollect‟s in 1615 sent out to convert people. They were not successful though.
The Jesuits were actually more successful in 1625. They were well-
established Christian monks. They played a very significant role for
centuries. They got themselves a monopoly in missionary activities in
Ursulines – There were also female nuns in 1639, establishing school for girls,
established social services like hospitals and social assistances of various kinds
Society of Notre Dam – came in the 1640s and established missions further
upstream in present day Montreal (founded in 1642)
That is why you see to this day, you often see these nun founders
o By the 1650‟s, but total population has reached 1000. There was no commercial
agriculture at the moment. It was not a very desirable place because the climate was cold
Sainte Marie among the Huron
o The Jesuits wanted to go a long way in land. To travel all the way from Quebec City to
Huron (by foot) was a long way. Jesuits wanted to go all the way inland.
Huronia was incredibly well developed. It was a classic manifestation
of the Iroquois. There were 20,000 living in Huronia.
They lived a settled life and made them potentially Europeans
o In 1639, they started building buildings out of wood, build
workshops, tradesmen shops, dormitories, and had 1,000
priests living in the mist of Iroquois people
The facilities that the Jesuits built were restored and rebuilt. o The Hurons did begin to convert to Christianity, but also brought a lot of diseases. From
the perspective of religious people, this can definitely occur. However, the more cynical
method of thinking is that they had better advantages than just a religious change.
It is alluring more than a compulsion
One this that flowed from this was a divided society, and conflict within the