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Lecture

02 The Colony of New France.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS261H5
Professor
Richard White
Semester
Winter

Description
02 The Colony of New France: The Canadien Roots of Canada (1600 to 1760s) Brief Introduction  Cartier has discovered Saint Lawrence River. They discovered it, claimed it, then left it  What did develop was a commercial fishery in Newfoundland. There is relatively shallow water and filled regularly with fishes. o In these 60 years, it was an international fishery and claimed land in the Saint Lawrence river o Fisher mans came from various fisher ports, and these were developed  Fishery o Green Fishery – caught the fish, gutted them, pack them with salt and then salt them back to Europe. You never go on the land o Dry Fishery – get a boat full of fish, unload the fish in the shore, lay them out to dry during the summer, then repack them and take them back to Europe.  The British used dry fishery because supposedly they lacked salt, and thus used the land a lot  There was also whaling. The “Basts” who did not have their own country became very good whalers. Red Bay was known because they were exhibited later on  There was no real settlement along the coast of Saint Lawrence, but there was something that was a semi-settlement.  PICTURE: Cod fishing and drying by the French in the eighteenth century  Eventually, these places built shelves so they were able to dry fishes  They did not take long to realize that they wanted to create territorial claims in different shores o People did begin to winter over to look after the equipment. This was a population of settled people  One period in the 1580‟s, there were 1200 men who were employed. This was obviously a large investment into material and money that the European capitalists are doing. Commercial fishery began to develop o There is no role for the native people because the Europeans are not using the land, they are using the sea. Therefore during this time, they did not communicate with the native people as much as later on.  Fur Trade o The reason why fur is popular in Europe was because of the use of felt for making hats o The fishing boats came out became small traders. The native people knew that the Europeans wanted the fur. Beaver was particularly good. This was a spinoff industry  This was actually as profitable as the fishery. In 1580, ships were coming to the gulf sole for fur. This was known as the fur trade o The center of the fur trade was much further in land. Natives had for centuries used this as a trading route. The Europeans learned this and began to go to the trading place. o 1600 – dozens of boats were in the region trading for fur. They were coming specifically for furs.  It was this international activity that made the French come more often. The king also by this time wanted to encourage the fur trader to create businesses and thus had a stronger claims, which in turn will bring out settlers o What the French King did was granted the trading monopoly. The king made it legal for one specific trader to trade in a specific area. When you have a monopoly. You do not have to worry about other competitions and can invest in infrastructure  Monopoly is bad for prices because the person can charge whatever they want, but they wanted business men to invest money in the fur trade. This was the strategy to furthering claim  At first, it was not successful, but de Monts was given a monopoly in North America (monopoly was given around the globe at this time), and employed a mariner (Champlain?), and the first attempt was at the Bay of Fundy in 1603 to set up a first company. However, it was not successful o Champlain believed that they needed to set up their fur trade in Stadacona (now Quebec)  Be brought a few dozen men to have this establishment going  He knew that the Stadacona Iroquois are all gone  They created an abitasion and this was believed to be a founded Canada, and the genesis of Canada  The word Canada started to be used o The French colonies turned into Canada, and the English colonies turned into America  Modern Canada evolved from a French colony in the rule of English…WHAT!? Early Years  Slow initial growth o This settlement of Champlain had an economic base for fur trade  Champlain had an agreement with the Algonkin people, and Iroquois were mad.  Huron were Iroquois, but were trade partners with the Algonkin and were enemies with the Iroquois  Champlain travelled himself to meet the Huron people in 1612, and formalized an alliance with the Hurons. This began a connection between Quebec and Montreal  Samuel de Champlain did much to secure this colony, and stayed. He was said to be the founder of New France (Founder of Canada). Highly respected and highly celebrated o It was a very small settlement, approximately a few thousand men. After about 10 years, the population increased but was around 50. The company was reorganized with new owners in France. The trading post was however, captured by the British in 1629, but returned to the French a few years later. o Missionary activities  Addition to the fur trade sustaining this colony was the Christian missionaries. Within a few years, Christian missionaries began to travel across. The recollect‟s in 1615 sent out to convert people. They were not successful though.  The Jesuits were actually more successful in 1625. They were well- established Christian monks. They played a very significant role for centuries. They got themselves a monopoly in missionary activities in 1632.  Ursulines – There were also female nuns in 1639, establishing school for girls, established social services like hospitals and social assistances of various kinds  Society of Notre Dam – came in the 1640s and established missions further upstream in present day Montreal (founded in 1642)  That is why you see to this day, you often see these nun founders o By the 1650‟s, but total population has reached 1000. There was no commercial agriculture at the moment. It was not a very desirable place because the climate was cold  Sainte Marie among the Huron o The Jesuits wanted to go a long way in land. To travel all the way from Quebec City to Huron (by foot) was a long way. Jesuits wanted to go all the way inland.  Huronia, 1615-1650  Huronia was incredibly well developed. It was a classic manifestation of the Iroquois. There were 20,000 living in Huronia.  They lived a settled life and made them potentially Europeans  Brébeuf o In 1639, they started building buildings out of wood, build workshops, tradesmen shops, dormitories, and had 1,000 priests living in the mist of Iroquois people  The facilities that the Jesuits built were restored and rebuilt. o The Hurons did begin to convert to Christianity, but also brought a lot of diseases. From the perspective of religious people, this can definitely occur. However, the more cynical method of thinking is that they had better advantages than just a religious change.  It is alluring more than a compulsion  One this that flowed from this was a divided society, and conflict within the
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