Class Notes (839,469)
Canada (511,354)
History (567)
HIS261H5 (26)
Lecture

08 The First Big Boom - Canada Enters the Twentieth Century.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS261H5
Professor
Richard White

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08 The First Big Boom: Canada Enters the Twentieth Century Overview  Canada‟s second generation (up until the beginning of the first world war)  Brief recap of last generation o We had a vast increase of territory from the west o The beginning of migration into the mountain west o Railways were built from east to west o Western Canada did get finished by 1885. Parts of it were built for years, and were knit together in 1885  There is a very special photograph of the last spike of nail into the railway  You can get from Vancouver to Montreal in a few days o There were also important laws and institutions established  Indian Act of 1876  Something that is an important element of the first generation history and the assimilation stilt on it  It is still in effect, and is very significant  Establishment of provincial rights and national policy of protective tariff in the 1880s  Lasted so long that many people thought that Canada‟s industry will die because there is no tariff to protect it  For example, Ice wine did not exist before free trade. It sells its product to United States  These things were established in the first generation, they are things that lasted for more than a century and have a lasting effect for Canada  Canadian Identity in the First Generation o What does it mean in the 1870s and 1880s – what does it mean to be Canadian?  We get into a problem because 1) French Canadian, 2) English Canadian  French Canada  Flourishing of nationalism, not Canadian nationalism  Created the province of Quebec – French perception of confederation  There is a celebratory route, but also a disappointment as Quebec does not have that much complete autonomy as they have thought  Nationalism is defensiveness – minority in a majority that develops a national identity  There is a strong flower of national identity o One of the curious thing is that a French poet wrote a national song to celebrate their culture and nation  Oh, Canada. o This song is subsequently changed to English and a national song for the whole country o They assume that the French version is a translation, rather than the other way around  Canada in the broader sense stealing a nationalist song  English Canada  There was a stronger than ever identity with the British empire o This makes sense because the British were active in the late 1850s. There were heroic stories being told o To be part of the British empire, they feel more important  Canada can feel better to think they are apart of a grander thing. It is called „Canadian Imperialism‟ o Refers to Canadian identity as part of the empire  From this came all the maps that were put in. The empire was a powerful symbol in schools  Canadian were obsessed that they invented a holiday where they celebrate Queen Victoria  This was a binding mindset for the English Canadian people  These two things do not go together very well Wilfred Laurier as Prime Minister  Prime Minister from 1896 to 1911, most significant prime minister  He played a role like John A. Macdonald for the liberal party. Liberal party barely existed, but did come together in that time of office, but with Wilfred Laurier made it event stronger o Brokerage parties, resolved the issues within them and had nation wide elements  Although he is on our money, people do not talk about him as much. o He was born and raised bilingual, educated very well. He studied at McGill and had a law degree. His political views in an early age was liberal rouge th o He didn‟t buy the connection with the Church. He was anti-clerical by 19 century standards. He didn‟t like that the church was dominating the government. He was part of a world which was anti-clerical Canada  This conservative block was a larger piece of political life o In addition to being anti-clerical, was pro free trade. He didn‟t like the government legislating companies.  These sorts of things are clearly awarded to the inner circle of the government and replicate the elite. The liberals wanted to break down these monopolies and therefore wanted free trade o Once he became a leader, he was a politician and saw that they needed to moderate their anti clerical  helped win liberals in 1896. Time for a new generation of politics  So moderate that he became and retained the high protective tariff (something that Macdonald agreed with)  Even something as principle as that, he changed his decisions  Was the first French Canadian prime minister of modern Canada, and one of the few o It was not expected that you be bilingual until modern Canada. Ever since it was expected, there were more French Canadian holding office o Interestingly, he was not known for this. He is not a champion of his people of his country, but is actually known for his compromises  For example, he faced a crisis in late 1890s in the Boar War. Laurier was not inclined, and under strong Canadian nationalists of national immaturity  Why would they run and fight a war where their old colonial party instigates it. They had no sympathy, but Laurier came up with a compromise  He did not completely back away, he agreed to volunteer people train and go to South Africa at Canada‟s expense. Provide some aid for people who want to volunteer  Many of his caucus walked out on him and formed a separate bloc for not respecting his needs  He steadily lost to French Canada because he compromised  Known for compromises and lost favor to French Canada Immigration  Settlers and sojourners o Immigration in the age of Laurier was heavier than any other time in Canadian history including the present day  From 1901 to 1914, 1.5 million immigrants entered Canada. In the three years before the war 1911-1913, there were 300 thousand immigrants per year  Canada‟s population at the time was only 6 or 7 million. We‟re talking 5% to 6% of Canada‟s population are entering per year. It is a far higher proportion than Canada immigration per day  You can see why immigration was much heavier than any other time in history. The country was transformed by this experience  Growing sea to sea nation  Why did so many people come?  Mostly because of international circumstances  Canada did not have much policies, most of the people came from central Europe and America was decreasing their land space  Land through the Midwest and further west was increasingly harder to get  There were some government policies that had an affect  What the Canadian government wanted to do was to populate the prairie west  Hundreds of thousands of immigrants went to prairie west and were given free land. The population did begin to grow as farms were being established  Other the same year, there were also a great boom of industrial, and therefore there were skilled and unskilled workers who entered to country o Unskilled workers would be arranged to companies such as the railway company  There were nearly as much unskilled workers as farmers. 43% of immigrants were unskilled laborers  These industrial workers worked all over the country o Railway construction, miners, etc. o They also took work in the cities building streets and side walks. Nonagricultural immigrants was a great phenomenon of the era  Many of these industrial workers were not strictly immigrants, they were known as sojourners o Sojourners – work for a period of time, and move back to their country  As it turns out, many of these sojourners settled and moved to the city because their work was seasonal  By the time the work was all over, they go into Thunder Bay because they do not have enough money. Sure enough, these sojourners settled in major cities  Winnipeg and Vancouver were also places where people settled  This was the beginning of ethnic neighborhoods  Even though they did not speak English, they were what Canada needed  Slavic people eastern and northern Europe  Over a hundred thousand people were brought into Canada  Such people were never excluded before  The government public said that these non English speaking immigrants were preferred  As a result, the prairie west was beginning to be transformed by Swedish, Germans, Icelanders, Polish, etc. to the prairie west  There was a greater diversity of unskilled workers coming from southern parts of Europe from Southeast – Bulgarians, Slavs, Italian, etc.  It was also to do this sort of work that Asians came (mostly Chinese, some Japanese, and some Sikhs from the Punjab)  They came as sojourning laborers  These Asian people came to British Columbia. There was almost no sign of these Asians in Eastern Canada  Consequences o Western settlement  Settle society began to develop  Ranching and Farming  Ranching is not cultivating the land. They let grass grow. They put livestock on land. If it is a dry year, they need to go further o Fencing land is not necessary o Roam free – you round up all the cattle‟s that have your brand on it o Ranching is good for dry land. That is why all these places in Texas is very important in these places o Different e
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