12 The 1960s and the End of Postwar Era
Final Exam Structure
8 answers that will answer in two hours
Every question should be done in 15 minutes
Questions will be one from each lecture (lecture 5-12), and the last one before the midterm
o One question from each of the last lectures
Go look from the lecture outline, and ask what it is
If you have a pretty good understanding of what each is, you will be well off
Some of the points are fairly broad
o If the subject is too big for 15 minutes, there will be a subtopic
Decade of Protest
Continuities with 50s
A lot of the 60’s cultural changes happened in the early 1970s for Canada. The changes that we
see are more about morals. In the early years, it is only a continuity of the postwar period of the
1950s. There is a steady economic growth, heavy immigration, baby boom, and the suburbs were
expanding. The welfare states were being introduced – some of these programs were introduced in
o There is nothing different about the 60s and 50s in this sense.
One vivid demonstration at this point is the modernization of Canada’s ‘downtown’.
o In most of Canada’s major cities, there were major redevelopment projects. Old office
buildings that were only four stories without elevators are demolished. Buildings are now
building right up to the street. There should be public spaces, and new design ideas were
o These are things that we visually know, such as the Toronto skyline, were all built during
this period. The Toronto city hall for example, was a creation. It was a major departure
for such a conservative city. This also happened in Vancouver, Alberta, and Winnipeg.
o It is a manifestation of the increase in wealth, and prosperity in post war era
o Lester Pearson was already 65 years old when he became prime minister. Later in the
decade, things did begin to change. Something that is called the ‘Counter Culture’ began
to take home amongst the youth.
o Led to something called ‘manners and morals’
o In some ways, this revolution signals the end of the post war period. In other ways, it can
be seen as a product of the post war period. Seems like a revolution, but maybe it was not
o It was indeed an international development. There were counter culture in the US, and all
throughout the world
One advance was in Paris. There was a street protest in Paris which led to
violence in the streets
People in Europe referred to ‘68 (people who are aging radicals) come from part
of this movement. Shows you how significant that year was to the cultural
o There were conventional norms and authorities, which manifested it in many things. For
example, informal dress, public protest against authority, long hair, increase drug use,
increase sexual activity, etc.
There was also a fascination with non-western culture which was perceived to
be more authentic – interest in India for example
There was a number of Asian authors setting their works in Asia, and became
very popular. Orientalist was seen as less western than the west
Counterculture became very popular
o There were two different types of counterculture
1) Hippies – dropout, long hair, hippies did not read much; they only
experienced things. The key to success was to drop out of university where
professors told you what to learn 2) Political Engaged Radicals – both challenged convention, but were different.
The radicals had short hair. The radicals had an impact of their own. The ‘New
Left’ emerged from the student radicals in the 1960s. They stayed in university,
and gained control in the governing councils
Cohort of very affluent children grew up, forced to stay in school, and
universities were built for them. There was huge enrollment for university.
University is the seedbed for a lot of the counter culture. Baby boom and
counter culture came hand in hand
o Low income and rural people did not take part in counter culture. It was more for the
urban people, urban affluence.
o Another contributor was growth of popular culture
Popular music reached out and contacted everyone. Mass media was extremely
powerful, but it did not exist until the late 1960s. It was because of the
consuming power of teenagers
o Another influence was the US civil rights movement
Black people who were resisting long standing racism are inspiring white
people. Civil rights movements inspired student organizations. They modeled
some of their protests along the civil rights protests
o Environmentalism was growing
Turn people against industry and modernity
o Some historians tended to see this as a fleeting experience. A lot of historians do not
agree with this. There were cultural changes that happened because of this. Lack of
formality in dress and speech changed in the 60s. Photographs of university show that
people were changing. Before the 60’s, everyone was properly dressed and everyone was
formal. All of a sudden, everyone was a slob in the 60s.
There was a sudden transformation that basically changed. Even in other social
situations such as teachers in public school referred to them by their first name.
A lot of young people speak to old people by their first name.
These are small trivial things, but reflect a permanent change during this time
o Perspectives changed, such as the 60s changed the perspective of founding in Canada.
Cultural studies rose through the 60s.
This is another way that had a lasting impact
One place that is evident was the Student Representatives. Robarts library was
built as a research library, however no it has been changed to a public library
Students protested this – elitism – and had won. Undergraduates can now check
out books in the stacks
o In the 1950s, there were some people who were beginning to get concerned about
Canada’s relation with the states in a cultural and economic point of view
o It was conservative. Anti-Americans in the 1950s were conservatives. They thought
Canada should still have their ties with British instead of America. They believed they
did not need to buy manufactured products for children to play with
o By the late 60’s this began to change. The main external event was the American
intervention in the Vietnam war
Canada had stood with the US all through the Cold War (ie. Korean War).
However, the Vietnam War went too far. Many Canadian people did not think
that they were doing the right thing to participate so much in the Vietnam war.
Prime Minister Pearson publically spoke against the American bombing in
He got into terrible problem for this. Him and Johnson became enemies
Public opinion in Canada had shifted, and the Vietnam War was
o Race Riots – Chicago, New Jersey had terrible race riots. Things were set on fire, there
were a lot of luting. People in Canada saw this through media and news papers.
This made Canadians very fearful of the US o Economic Nationalism began to flourish in economic circles of Canada
Economists were publishing how much American investment was in Canadian
industry. Canada was losing control of its own industry. This looked very
alarming, and people of the political left were very concerned of this.
People in the NDP saw this, and was a big democratic issue. These people
influenced a lot of policies in Canada
o This all adds up to Anti-Americanism. It was quite wide spread in the late 1960s.
Perceptions of the US were quite distorted.
It was fueled by a lot of anti-Vietnam war movements in the US. People who
came from America to Canada were extremely Anti-America and stirred a lot of
these Anti-Americanism thoughts
Pierre (Elliot) Trudeau
Not a pure Francophone, he was raised bilingual. Born in 1919, very well educated. University of
Montreal during the war, and went off to Harvard. He went to these various institutions of higher
education, but never really received any other degree other than a law degree. He also travelled
internationally – he wanted to experience things personally, rather than read about them. He
travelled throughout the world that was not a common thing to do, this brought him his
o He settled back into Montreal in 1950, and wanted to reform Quebec politics. He was not
a politician, but was an intellectual journalist. He did not really have a job, but had a lot
of money from his family. He was not hired in universities because he had unorthodox
views, but he did write influential articles that were published in political journals.
o He was advocating reform, and challenging the challengers. He did not fit into the
mainstream reformers at the time.
This was because the Catholic Church strongly dominated the people. It was
done on the understanding as ‘who we are’ – protecting their cultural integrity.
People who were challenging Quebec were arguing that they should grow the
government instead of having it linked to the church
Trudeau sensed that these were redefining nationalism. They are not church
people, but are still people. Trudeau never swallowed this view. He did not like
French Canadian people seeing themselves as a nation, and was anti-nationalists.
When they become a nation, it is inherently conservative. They needed
to break free from nationalism, open up to the rest of Canada
o The bottom line is that he became very anti-nationalist. It so happens that in 1960, the
province of Quebec went through a major transition. The liberal party was suddenly
elected – they wanted to remove Quebec from the church. They brought in public
education (this was relatively new)
This was referred to as the quiet revolution. What is interesting is that Trudeau
took no part in the quiet revolution, because he believed that it was still