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12 The 1960s and the End of Postwar Era.docx

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Richard White

12 The 1960s and the End of Postwar Era Final Exam Structure  8 answers that will answer in two hours  Every question should be done in 15 minutes  Questions will be one from each lecture (lecture 5-12), and the last one before the midterm o One question from each of the last lectures  Go look from the lecture outline, and ask what it is  If you have a pretty good understanding of what each is, you will be well off  Some of the points are fairly broad o If the subject is too big for 15 minutes, there will be a subtopic The 1960s  Decade of Protest  Continuities with 50s  A lot of the 60’s cultural changes happened in the early 1970s for Canada. The changes that we see are more about morals. In the early years, it is only a continuity of the postwar period of the 1950s. There is a steady economic growth, heavy immigration, baby boom, and the suburbs were expanding. The welfare states were being introduced – some of these programs were introduced in the 1960s. o There is nothing different about the 60s and 50s in this sense.  One vivid demonstration at this point is the modernization of Canada’s ‘downtown’. o In most of Canada’s major cities, there were major redevelopment projects. Old office buildings that were only four stories without elevators are demolished. Buildings are now building right up to the street. There should be public spaces, and new design ideas were becoming normal o These are things that we visually know, such as the Toronto skyline, were all built during this period. The Toronto city hall for example, was a creation. It was a major departure for such a conservative city. This also happened in Vancouver, Alberta, and Winnipeg. o It is a manifestation of the increase in wealth, and prosperity in post war era  Counterculture o Lester Pearson was already 65 years old when he became prime minister. Later in the decade, things did begin to change. Something that is called the ‘Counter Culture’ began to take home amongst the youth. o Led to something called ‘manners and morals’ o In some ways, this revolution signals the end of the post war period. In other ways, it can be seen as a product of the post war period. Seems like a revolution, but maybe it was not o It was indeed an international development. There were counter culture in the US, and all throughout the world  One advance was in Paris. There was a street protest in Paris which led to violence in the streets  People in Europe referred to ‘68 (people who are aging radicals) come from part of this movement. Shows you how significant that year was to the cultural movement o There were conventional norms and authorities, which manifested it in many things. For example, informal dress, public protest against authority, long hair, increase drug use, increase sexual activity, etc.  There was also a fascination with non-western culture which was perceived to be more authentic – interest in India for example  There was a number of Asian authors setting their works in Asia, and became very popular. Orientalist was seen as less western than the west  Counterculture became very popular o There were two different types of counterculture  1) Hippies – dropout, long hair, hippies did not read much; they only experienced things. The key to success was to drop out of university where professors told you what to learn  2) Political Engaged Radicals – both challenged convention, but were different. The radicals had short hair. The radicals had an impact of their own. The ‘New Left’ emerged from the student radicals in the 1960s. They stayed in university, and gained control in the governing councils  Cohort of very affluent children grew up, forced to stay in school, and universities were built for them. There was huge enrollment for university. University is the seedbed for a lot of the counter culture. Baby boom and counter culture came hand in hand o Low income and rural people did not take part in counter culture. It was more for the urban people, urban affluence. o Another contributor was growth of popular culture  Popular music reached out and contacted everyone. Mass media was extremely powerful, but it did not exist until the late 1960s. It was because of the consuming power of teenagers o Another influence was the US civil rights movement  Black people who were resisting long standing racism are inspiring white people. Civil rights movements inspired student organizations. They modeled some of their protests along the civil rights protests o Environmentalism was growing  Turn people against industry and modernity o Some historians tended to see this as a fleeting experience. A lot of historians do not agree with this. There were cultural changes that happened because of this. Lack of formality in dress and speech changed in the 60s. Photographs of university show that people were changing. Before the 60’s, everyone was properly dressed and everyone was formal. All of a sudden, everyone was a slob in the 60s.  There was a sudden transformation that basically changed. Even in other social situations such as teachers in public school referred to them by their first name. A lot of young people speak to old people by their first name.  These are small trivial things, but reflect a permanent change during this time o Perspectives changed, such as the 60s changed the perspective of founding in Canada.  Cultural studies rose through the 60s.  This is another way that had a lasting impact  One place that is evident was the Student Representatives. Robarts library was built as a research library, however no it has been changed to a public library  Students protested this – elitism – and had won. Undergraduates can now check out books in the stacks  Anti-Americanism o In the 1950s, there were some people who were beginning to get concerned about Canada’s relation with the states in a cultural and economic point of view o It was conservative. Anti-Americans in the 1950s were conservatives. They thought Canada should still have their ties with British instead of America. They believed they did not need to buy manufactured products for children to play with o By the late 60’s this began to change. The main external event was the American intervention in the Vietnam war  Canada had stood with the US all through the Cold War (ie. Korean War). However, the Vietnam War went too far. Many Canadian people did not think that they were doing the right thing to participate so much in the Vietnam war.  Prime Minister Pearson publically spoke against the American bombing in Vietnam.  He got into terrible problem for this. Him and Johnson became enemies after this  Public opinion in Canada had shifted, and the Vietnam War was unpopular o Race Riots – Chicago, New Jersey had terrible race riots. Things were set on fire, there were a lot of luting. People in Canada saw this through media and news papers.  This made Canadians very fearful of the US o Economic Nationalism began to flourish in economic circles of Canada  Economists were publishing how much American investment was in Canadian industry. Canada was losing control of its own industry. This looked very alarming, and people of the political left were very concerned of this.  People in the NDP saw this, and was a big democratic issue. These people influenced a lot of policies in Canada o This all adds up to Anti-Americanism. It was quite wide spread in the late 1960s. Perceptions of the US were quite distorted.  It was fueled by a lot of anti-Vietnam war movements in the US. People who came from America to Canada were extremely Anti-America and stirred a lot of these Anti-Americanism thoughts Pierre (Elliot) Trudeau  Personal Background  Not a pure Francophone, he was raised bilingual. Born in 1919, very well educated. University of Montreal during the war, and went off to Harvard. He went to these various institutions of higher education, but never really received any other degree other than a law degree. He also travelled internationally – he wanted to experience things personally, rather than read about them. He travelled throughout the world that was not a common thing to do, this brought him his experiences. o He settled back into Montreal in 1950, and wanted to reform Quebec politics. He was not a politician, but was an intellectual journalist. He did not really have a job, but had a lot of money from his family. He was not hired in universities because he had unorthodox views, but he did write influential articles that were published in political journals. o He was advocating reform, and challenging the challengers. He did not fit into the mainstream reformers at the time.  This was because the Catholic Church strongly dominated the people. It was done on the understanding as ‘who we are’ – protecting their cultural integrity.  People who were challenging Quebec were arguing that they should grow the government instead of having it linked to the church  Trudeau sensed that these were redefining nationalism. They are not church people, but are still people. Trudeau never swallowed this view. He did not like French Canadian people seeing themselves as a nation, and was anti-nationalists.  When they become a nation, it is inherently conservative. They needed to break free from nationalism, open up to the rest of Canada  Political Ideas o The bottom line is that he became very anti-nationalist. It so happens that in 1960, the province of Quebec went through a major transition. The liberal party was suddenly elected – they wanted to remove Quebec from the church. They brought in public education (this was relatively new)  This was referred to as the quiet revolution. What is interesting is that Trudeau took no part in the quiet revolution, because he believed that it was still nation
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