03 French/English Conflicts: The Complication of Canada (1650s to 1790s)
Additional French colonies that were not Canada, and part of it is French colonies
This was a roughly a 1660s to 1760s, it was a time of continuous warfare with different powers.
Each of these had their particular names, but we do not have to know the names. North America
was part of this though; because colonies from France and Britain would fight because the country
o Colonies would have treaties when war is finished. They are part of the peace treaty.
European wars affect North American peace treaties
When you look at the map (1650’s) of European Colonial Settlements
o Notice French colonial area are primarily in Quebec and Montreal, and some in the
Canada was used in roughly the area of New France (Canada was a subset of
o The Swedish and Dutch colonies would become part of the British colonies
The rest of New France (along the coast) will be highlighted during the lecture today
o When Champlain and Dumont came to Canada, they settled at the bay of Fundy
o After the 1620’s the British came to take over
o New Scotland is presently Nova Scotia. New Scotland was claimed as British territory
o The gulf of Canada – Canada was used internationally
After a peace treaty, it was returned back to the French
o The King sent out people to the original site of Champlain’s settlement in the Bay of
Fundy. It is not facing the opened ocean, and is facing inland
o There were small French settlements elsewhere in the gulf of Saint Lawrence
o Through these years, we have a small French settlement in the Bay of Fundy. In the early
1700’s there is a population of about 15,000 people at these various places.
This is approximately 1/10 of the current Canadian population
It has distinctive features that had attracted Canadians for a long time.
Because it was out of the place, police was minimal.
The scenario system was never applied because it was such a small and
out of the way place that authorities never paid attention to it
Bumsted makes the point that the on again off again French control,
they believed that this place would be half English, and therefore did
not assert their control to this area
It also had close approximation to New England. Therefore, it looks like the
settlers here were bilingual and communicated with their near by people
They also had connections with Native people. They communicated with the
There were still French words from the 17 century which had words
that connected to Native people
They did not fish as much either. The colonies to the south were very
commercial fishers, and therefore Acadia did not fish as much. Instead, they
were farmers to their land
o The Bay of Fundy had the highest tides in the world. They therefore made earth dams to
keep out the water. They then use the soil for rich agricultural land. This was the
technology they used to create their farmland.
It is seen as a peasants Utopia because the conditions were good, and the
authorities were weak
o Fur trade expanded into the west. This fur trade became the central element of New
France and Canada. It began right at the beginning. Champlain had gone west with the
Natives. You can hire a few dozen men, and buy canoes, paddle in, and trade furs. As the
decades past 1670s-1690s, these explorers (entrepreneur) profited from business
by travelling to the west
o There were almost no settlements in these areas; there were only a few dozen trading
forts. These forts were substantial places, but people who lived there were temporary and
were employees of some business ventures
As more business ventures began, more people started to winter over. However,
this was still tiny
o Kaskaskia was a well developed community with a few hundred semi-permanent settlers
o Fur trade was based on cooperation with the native people. Native were accepting of the
European intrusion because Europeans were not taking land. Europeans were just going
up and down the rivers
Essentially the fur trade was based on the sovereignty of the Native people.
They were carrying on business and were not conquering them. Therefore, there
is a principle of first nations and the independence for native Canada
o Origins of Métis
As interactions started to increase, relationships between Native women and
European men began to be known. They started to have marriages (common law
marriage) – not sanctified by the church.
Sometimes, these marriages were for business relationships. By doing so, it was
a cementing of businesses. The reason why we know this is because there is a
new race of people, named the Métis.
These people grew up bilingual and bicultural. These people acted as
businessmen, guides, etc.
Sometimes, they are called mixed bloods, or half-breeds.
What is interesting is because they had a clear distinction for themselves.
Lots of researches were done for the Metis. They travelled in boat, and
were also a critical part of the fur trade.
Late 18 century, these people came into the historical records in the west lake
region (present day Wisconsin)
A few thousand at most, but did have a distinct identity and would become very
important in Canadian history several generations later
In the Atlantic realm, these places were growing like a madhouse. The living and growing
conditions are like right now. There is more temperate climate. Emigrations also came over, there
were people coming in the 100 of thousands, while Canada was growing 10 of thousands.
o The British colonies were 10 times as many as the Canadian colonies
o These British colonies turn into United States, while French colonies are what turned into
Commercial enterprise was at the heart of the founding of Canada. Business history is not what
historians pay much attention to, but both the fur trade and fishery was driven by the profit motive.
There were risks involved. The entrepreneur had to take risks.
o Both of these operations had business connections with Europe, and they also did not
have agriculture associated with them to any degree. The society was similar because
there were employees were turnovers, and there were a few women.
o Some of the differences were that the fur trade was based in Canada; their business was
centered in Canada. Whereas, the fishery was based in England.
o Another different was that fur trade collaborated with the Native population, while the
fishery was in the sea and no natives were involved.
In the North Atlantic, the British fishery was beginning to establish. As the fishery was getting
bigger, it started to be in the hands of some few large enterprises. These enterprises were
connected to the highest people in England. o They built their own equipment, storage facilities, housing, etc. More people began to
o By the early 18 century, there were 2,000 British populations in Newfoundland. It was
not going inland (all the resources were by the sea). There were a series of costal places
o Like the fur trade, the pattern was unusual.
If there were not enough money to operate, these enterprises would not hire as
many people, and thus the population would go down. (1720-1797)
When you think of settlers, you think of immigrants coming and taking
ownership of land. However, this was not what people did
These people were actually indentured employees. When they finish, they go
back. They are selling their labor for wages and are not small property owners
Women – If you are a commercial house, you do not want families there.
Therefore, women population was not very high. They were proprietors and
therefore they did not want families to be there – they did not want human
society, they are in the business of catching fish and selling them for money.
But as you see, it did increase because society in Newfoundland did
become conventional and had a greater diversity later on.
o Body of water that Henry Hudson had explored for the British. He was first trying to look
for a route thom Europe to Asia. He was never seen again
o Since the 19 century, everything was oriented to the south. However, the North was as
important as the south because of the fur trade during that time.
o The British were aware that they could go over top to Ontario and Nova Scotia in order to
This group came to known as the Hudson Bay Company was given monopoly to
all the land that drained into Hudson Bay in the 1660s.
The formal year of the company was 1670. It was given the name Rupert’s
Land, the name was chosen because of its royal connection
o They set up