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06 Canadian Confederation.docx

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Richard White

06 Canadian Confederation ***WILL BE ON THE EXAM*** Confederation as national founding  Overview o 1867 July 1 , Canada‟s founding  Problems o Not the start of Canada o Canada was initially founded by the French, this was not the beginning of Canada  The name was used for geographically regions  There is no military victory, and it was not even opposed by the colonial power o The colonial powers wanted British North America to have a confederation o Confederation did not create a completely new country, it was still under the power of Britain o It was not a popular senses of the world  People did not know of it at all, it was a political agreement  Some people even opposed the agreement, and it was not well liked o Using confederation as a national founding has distorted the historical reality and has mislead us in some conceptions BNA in the 1860s:  West: from fur trade to settlement o The boundary has gone through by this time o Settlement was beginning to encroach on fur trade territory  Rupert‟s land and British Columbia has fur trade territory  1850 there was a major gold rush which brought thousands of prospectors who lived there  They cause the migration of thousands of people find gold in Cariboo (gold in the streams) o In the prairies, there were settlers from Scotland and Metis settlers. There were two other developments  By the 1840‟s it started to become bizarre that one company governed it. As trading diversified and settlers came in, there was no law. The whole legal basis of Rupert‟s land started to be questioned.  Some of these people from the river colony wanted to trade in the south, however it was illegal because they were only allowed to trade with Hudson Bay. However, this was challenged and therefore the whole legal control of the Hudson bay company was weakened  In 1859, all the signs were that Hudson Bay company will not renew their legal authorities in the prairie west  By the 1850s all the land in Upper Canada had been granted. So there was no place to open up new farms. As families matured, they thought they can go to the real west (annexations)  These people travelled to the red river colony and started new businesses there for farming  The metis did not like these Canadians (not French or half Indian). These Canadians created social decent that was noticeable by the 1850s  The potential of annexing the red river colony was exchanged o Main Problems  The legality of Hudson bay Company, and the relationship between the Metis in the Red River Colony  Canada: political deadlock o Cannot have a minority party which keeps passing legislature (for English Canada) with the support of majority from French Canada (see last lecture) o Macdonald continued to shrink, and therefore the conservative cannot get a majority in the legislature  It is very unstable and governments can fall o The solution for this was to re-divide them into half so that they can get back to functioning  This was a potential solution  Atlantic colonics: changing trade o Their history through the years was similar to Canada. They received immigrants, population rising, economy expanding  The colonial legislature were reconstructed for responsible government o There are some people that argue that responsible government was secured in Nova Scotia o There was industrialization getting started in these colonies  They were smaller, and their population was smaller that Canada  This was because they were not as appealing o One of the things that stand out is that there were no railways built in the Atlantic colonies  There were not enough goods to put into freight cars, and needed to believe that there will be more in the future  This had not happen in the colonies in the Atlantic o They were oriented to the sea and not inland  They were part of the British Empire. They looked to the British empire rather than look at the colonies  However, in 1814, there was a powerful free trade movement in Briti
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